June 2019


DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-4-13

Sereda V. V., Grishin N. N.

Chimmotology  is 55

Keywords: Chimmotology, petroleum, oil and lubricants (POL) application, POL performance characteristics, the methodology of chimmotology, scientific schools.

Abstract. The chemmotology development results, which include its own methodology, scientific schools and areas of research, theoretical aspects, scientific works and practical results, have been summed up. The role of chemmotology in enhancing the service life of machines has been noted. The problems of chemmotology have been
indicated, the most important of which is the formulation of its own theoretical background. The priority chemmotology research area is focused; it includes establishment of the stable quantitative connections between fuels&lubricants from one side and reliability in operation of machines and mechanisms, where they are applied, from another one. The specified connection, if and when the relevant knowledge is accumulated, has been carried out in a form of desired level regulation of
fuels&lubricants operation properties, excluding any of machine faulty operation. The tasks of chemmotology, which can be conventionally divided into three groups, have been determined. The first taskgroup comprises the fuels&lubricants quality optimization, providing the fullest correspondence of their operation properties to the requirements of machine performance and fuels&lubricants quality evaluation (application of new components, additives, improvers, production technologies, etc.) and extension of their resources at the expense of alternative fuels (such as, hydrogen,  liquid and compressed flammable gas fuels, alcohols and alcohol-gasoline blends, and synthetic liquid fuels made of coals, shale, peat and others), lubricants (simple and compound ethers, polysiloxanes, fluorocarbons) and others. Solving the tasks of the second taskgroup has been deployed to the enhancement of effective application
of fuels&lubricants under operation conditions. This taskgroup includes the development and scientific justification of principles for classification and unification of
flow rate standards and time periods for their storage, interchangeability, compatibility, remanufacturing techniques of improper fuel quality, reprocessing and recycling of the used lubricants and special-purpose technical fluids. Theoretical studies of physical, chemical, colloidal, thermodynamic and electrochemical processes, which occur in the
chemmotology system “machines – fuels&lubricants – operation” under the effect of various external factors (temperature, loads, rolling and sliding velocities, catalytic effect of metals, corrosive media, radiation etc.), take an important place in this work. By now, the fundamental theories of oxygen, combustion, adhesion, wear-outs, corrosion, etc., as the findings of chemmotology studies, have been adapted for the above-mentioned processes. The third taskgroup comprises the development and improvement of estimation methods for the fuels&lubricants operation properties. This taskgroup includes the investigations intended to improvement of fuels&lubricants quality control methods. 

FAE «The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation», Moscow

DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-14-18

Shatalov K.V. Seryogin E.P.

An applying of terms «method» and «procedure» in hemmotology

Keywords: Chemmotology; measurement method; measurement procedure; analytical technique; analytical procedure, test method; Test procedure.

Abstract. Chemmotology as an independent field of knowledge doesn’t have a unequivocal term for determination applying methods of investigation. Terms with comparable essence referred to related subjects that are analytical chemistry, metrology and qualimetry have been discussed to substantiate a correct application of  terminology. In the field of analytical chemistry, it has been commonly used two terms with different meanings, which are «analytical technique» and «analytical procedure» [5]. The term of «analytical procedure» is substantially broader than «analytical technique» term. Analytical procedure can be considered as the sum of three components: analytical technique + documented procedure + requirements to accuracy of results obtained. In the field of metrology it has been widely used two similar terms: «measurement method» and «measurement procedure» [3,6]. The terms both are often used at the same context, however the main difference of these terms is due to
measurement procedure includes the requirements to measurement’s accuracy in comparison with measurement method. Consequently, measurement procedure enables to get the results with warranted accuracy. Qualimetry has the «test method» and «test procedure» terms [9]. The term of «test procedure» is significantly broader than term of «test method» likewise in the analytical chemistry field. It is necessary to understand the differences between the terms «analysis», «measurement» and «test» for correct applying of these ones. The individual subject undergoes to measurement or
analysis and the results of measurement (analysis) are related only on the subject. The batches of products that are consist  of plenty of single subjects undergo to tests.
The results of measurements or analysis of single subjects  from the batch (according to the some common principles) are spreading to the whole batch. If the procedure includes the sampling rules, thereby it will be transformed to test procedure from analysis (measurement) procedure. The evolution of the term of «test procedure» is demonstrated on the figure 1. The comparative analysis of the terms applying in the field of analytical chemistry, metrology and qualimetry is showing that the analogous approach to determination of terms «method» and «procedure» both is being used that is method is the component of the procedure. The main difference between procedure and method is of obtaining the result with warranted accuracy is ensured by the documented procedure implementation. Simultaneously the differences between terms of «analysis (measurement) procedure» and «test procedure» are only of the second one in addition contains the sampling rules which permit to spread the results of analysis (measurements) of the individual sample from the batch to the whole batch of products. In fact, the petroleum products undergo just tests (not analysis or measurements) due to the features of their production and utilization. Therefore, it is necessary to apply the «test procedure» term to the documents regulated an order of
estimation of petroleum products quality.

FAE «The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation», Moscow

DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-19-29

Pimenov Yu.M., Sereda V.A., Ulit’ko A.V.

Problems of the Estimation of Fuels and Lubricants Performance Property Level Informativeness Enhancement

Keywords: fuel and lubricating materials, performance property, chemmotology process, technical equipment, operation activity, model analysis, experiment, informativeness, mathematical model, forecasting.

Abstract. The paper presents the current issues of the information quantity and quality enhancement when evaluating fuels and lubricants performance properties at time of laboratory bench testing due to the lack of information currently available to forecast the potential propensity of fuels and lubricants to be transformed at the
life cycle stages and to make a decision for application of fuels and lubricants in technical equipment. The problems that reduce the informativeness of properties estimation at the stage of laboratory and bench tests are shown. They are
related to insufficient perfection of test methods of fuels and lubricants in  terms of conformity (similarity) between test method conditions and conditions that actually affect fuels and lubricants at the life cycle stages; poor adaptability of a number of performance property characteristic values of fuels and lubricants to forecast the technical equipment operation performance; the absence or limited application of
quantitative prognostic mathematical models of the studied processes of the composition and properties changing of fuels and lubricants. The tendencies of development of the degree of conformity increasing between the model and full-scale results in chemmotology based on the formation of stable feedbacks between conditions (methods) and results of tests of fuels and lubricants at all stages of the test system are considered. The most effective direction suggested to be research
practice (tests) by methods and means specifically designed and developed to assess and forecast the level of performance properties of fuels and lubricants in various technical equipment operating conditions based on the functional simulation of chemmotology processes with application in the research practice (tests) and processing the results of methodological techniques ensuring the extraction of maximum
information about the properties of fuels and lubricants and minimizing the time and resources. The efficient and economical method of enhancing the estimation of performance properties level informativeness was suggested. It ensures the quantitative generalized (integral) expression and comparison of the potential propensity of fuels and lubricants for transformations coming out in different ways depending on the operation conditions and the engineering construction. This method involves the laboratory- and bench-scale testing of fuels and lubricants that implement functionally similar test conditions in a physical model and full-scale objects, using of the mathematical theory of the design of experiments that allows to maximize the amount of information about the properties of fuels and lubricants and significantly reduce
the cost of the experiment. The simulation results of the proposed method allow entering the performance functional of fuels and lubricants quality according to the
estimated performance properties – integral assessment characterizing the potential propensity of fuels and lubricants to transformations in both the range of the  determining factors and in the narrow ranges for selected factors. The numerical values of integral estimates make it possible to reveal the relative advantages of a sample of fuels and lubricants vs. another in terms of a specific performance property. As a measure of concordance of the model and full-scale test results (values of the properties of fuels and lubricants and performance parameters of equipment)
to confirm the performance properties estimation results informativeness enhancement it was proposed to use a sample correlation coefficient. The examples of evaluation results using the new method when estimating the properties of diesel fuel and gasoline are provided. The solution of the analyzed problems through the use of the suggested method of fuels and lubricants performance property level estimation
informativeness enhancement will allow the cost reduction of the validation of requirements for performance properties primarily of new fuels and lubricants and will enhance the efficiency of making the decision for their application in advanced technical equipment.

FAE «The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation», Moscow

DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-30-32

 Lashkhi V.L. A.L.Chudinovskikh

Features of construction and prospects of development of Haematology motor oils

Keywords: chemmotology, motor oil, internal combustion engine (ice), the methods of qualification.

Abstract. Peculiarities of chemotology motor oils and solutions tasks this section of chemmotology. Specificity of setting and carrying out works in this field of knowledge, and building the actual methodological base of chemmotology motor oils as a universal tool. 

Firm Nami-Khim Ltd., Moscow

DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-33-36

Glyadaev D. Yu., Mityagin V.A., Remorov B.S., Chulkov I.P., Zemlyanaya T.P.

Rheological properties of low-temperature greases with anti-friction additives

Keywords: greases, anti-friction additives, rheological properties, low-temperature

Abstract. It is shown that reliable operation of modern ground equipment at extremely low temperatures requires the use of high-quality low-temperature lubricants. To ensure high tribological characteristics of such lubricants, it is necessary to use individual additives in their composition or their different compositions. The influence
of the concentration of antifriction additives on the rheological, operational and low-temperature  properties of greases prepared on different dispersion media (mineral and semi-synthetic basis) is investigated. Evaluation of rheological and operational properties of lubricants was carried out by standard methods to determine: evaporation; tensile strength and thermal hardening; colloidal stability. Low-temperature properties were evaluated by methods of determining the starting moments in ball and roller bearings. Studied based on rheological and performance properties on the concentration of anti-friction additives. It is established that the majority of solid additives contribute to the increase of torques. The data confirming the positive effect of ultrafine tetraftorethylene (UPTFE) powder on low-temperature properties, including lubricants containing a synthetic component of the dispersion medium, are presented. The possibility of improving the low-temperature properties of lubricants by introducing ultrafine tetraftorethylene powder is shown. 

FAE «The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation», Moscow

 All-Russian Research Institute for Oil Refining [VNII NP], Moscow

 DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-37-42

Alatortsev E.I., Leonteva S.A., Podlesnova E.V., Tsyganova M.K.

Methodology for determining performance and physicochemical properties of
fuels based on chromatographic information

Keywords: gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, capillary gas chromatography method, high
performance liquid chromatography method, performance properties of fuels, physical and chemical properties of fuels.

Abstract. The development of methods for determining the physical and chemical and perfomance properties of petroleum fuels is based on the correlation of their quality indicators with the hydrocarbon composition. The determination of the hydrocarbon composition is carried out by the developed complex of methods of
capillary gas and high-performance liquid chromatography. To calculate fuel quality indicators, chromatographic information on the composition of individual components or their groups is used. Properties of fuels that are additive in nature (for example, density) are calculated based on tabular data on the properties of individual components and their content in the mixture. When calculating the quality
indicators of fuels that do not obey the additivity law (for example, fractional composition), along with the characteristic of the component itself, it is necessary to consider the influence of components of a different structure on it. For this purpose, the method of regression analysis is used, which allows to evaluate the contribution of the properties of individual components or their groups to the general property of the system. 

All-Russian Research Institute for Oil Refining [VNII NP], Moscow

 DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-43-49

Ivanov A.V., Manshev D.A.

The U.S. Army Standartization System and the Qualification Procedures Established by the Department of Defense

Keywords: US Army, standartization, POL, Qualified Products List, Qualified Products
Database, Qualified Manufacturers List, qualification product management, qualification product process, standartization policy.

Abstract. The paper considers the key areas of Petroleum, Oils and Lubricants (POL) standardization, qualification policies and procedures contained in Department of USA Defense (DoD). The system of US Army’s standards regarding POL standardization with reference to DoD Instruction № 4120.24 «Defense Standartization Program Procedures» have described». The basic procedures of SD-6 «Provisions Governing Qualification» have included. Qualification is a process in advance of, and independent of, an acquisition by which a manufacturer’s capabilities or a manufacturer’s or distributor’s products are examined, tested, and approved to be in conformance with specification requirements, and subsequent approval for inclusion of products in an electronic qualified products list (QPL) or manufacturers in an electronic qualified manufacturers list (QML), which are part of the Qualified Product Database
(QPD). Criteria for retention of qualification are applied on a periodic basis to ensure continued integrity of the qualification status. The fundamentals of AR 70-12 «Fuels
and Lubricants Standartization Policy for equipment Design, Operation, and Logistic Support» have discussed. The detail information regarding primary, alternate and emergency fuels used in US Army materiel have represented. It is stated that before publication of new or revised Lubrication Orders (LOs) or other lubrication instructions for Army materiel that specify application of lubricants, fluids, and associated products, the responsible activity or agency will furnish a draft copy of the LO or document to
the Director, TACOM Mobility Technology Center — Fort Belvoir, for technical approval before its publication and distribution. A performance specification or a purchase description will be developed to enable procurement of the additive. Proprietary aftermarket additives, primarily intended for maintenance, facility, and other personnel to use within the field environment, are not to be procured, tested, evaluated, or used by any elements of the Active Army, the Army National Guard, or the U.S. Army Reserve, unless the above required conditions have been fully met.

 DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-50-52

Krushinskiy Yu. I.

The establishment of science and technology electronic archive of Chemmotology

Keywords: archive, chemmotology, scientific subject, methodology, reflex, organization,
activity, system-hate approach.

Abstract. The question of creation of scientific and technical electronic archive of Chemmotology, for the purpose of systematization, storage, electronic access to scientific data (operational use), and also from the point of view of construction of Chemmotology, as a scientific subject of G. P. Schedrovitskys methodology is considered. The importance of the historical approach to the construction of the electronic archive of Chemmotology is determined. The proposed structure of the electronic archive, as well as the stages and organization of its creation are presented. The archive will allow the initiation of reflection of the obtained results the chemical in 55 years, to systematize the results of work of scientists of Chemmotology
and thematisiert their scientific and theoretical concepts.