Mayboroda S.E. («Safety of waste handling» Consulting and analytics agency)
Overview handling of used oils. Part II. National experience organization of collection and refining (recycling) used oils
Keywords: used oil, waste oil, experience, waste, oil, treatment, collection, recycling, recovery, regeneration, country, resource, security, industry.
Abstracts. Currently, the Russian Federation has been a fundamental change in the basic normative legal acts governing the treatment of waste, including the results from the operation of petroleum products. With regard to the lubricants we are talking about used oil, the intensity of handling which is largely related to the level of economic development, industrial production and state environmental oversight.
In reforming the legislation governing the treatment used oils in the Russian Federation, it is useful to take into account the existing experience of handling (collection and recycling (recycling, recovery)) used oils in economically developed countries, having a historical aspect, as in the world as well as in the domestic scale.
Special attention worthy achievements in the organization and management of handling, as well as the development of infrastructure for the collection and processing (recycling) of used oils in the European Union.
It should be noted that in the economically developed countries waste oils are regenerated, that is, extended life cycle, which is reflected in the adopted laws and regulations.
In the Russian Federation, in the interests of manufacturers of lubricants, legally regulated disposal (recycling) used oils, that is, in general, the completion of the life cycle.
Therefore, in the Russian Federation to the development of regulations and adoption of the federal bodies of executive decisions on the organization of waste handling it is advisable to take into account the experiences and elements of the treatment used oils in Russia taking into account the risks and opportunities for producers and importers of lubricants.
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PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION, MARKET
Smirnov V.K., Irisova K.N., Talisma E.L. (Catachem Company Ltd.)
FCC naphtha hydrotreating
Keywords: cracked naphtha (CN), hydrotreating, dienes, iodio number, octane, olefins, mercaptans, sulfur.
Abstracts. The features of the chemical composition of samples of FCC naphtha (CN), obtained at different catalytic cracking units were examined, the results of hydrotreating of these samples on catalysts in the series of RK were carried ont, analysis of the kinetics of sulfur hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation of unsaturated
compounds was maked, it was established the influence of the method of synthesis of catalysts and their operating conditions on the kinetic hydroforming process parameters and product quality. It was shown:
• in hydrotreating process of FCC naphtha significant role belongs to porous structure
alumonikel(cobalt)molybdenum catalysts, therefore, a process for their preparation. It is preferable a uniform distribution of the active ingredients in a porous carrier structure. It is possible the combination of catalysts with different distribution of the components in the porous structure;
• process hydrotreating of FCC naphtha is divided into two areas of the reactions:
•• preferable in homogeneous phase with the predominance hydrogenolysis reactions of sulfur
compounds thiophenless nature and minimum hydrogenation of olefins;
•• on the active centers of the pore surface of the catalyst, that is the internal kinetic and internal diffusion areas with reactions hydrogenolysis of thiophene sulfur series and hydrogenation of unsaturated.
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sudovomu toplivu, toplivu dlya reaktivnykh dvigateley i topochnomu mazutu» (utverzhden postanovleniem
Pravitelstva RF ot 27.02.08 g. no 118). [Technical Regulations of the Russian Federation «On requirements to
automobile and aviation gasoline, diesel and marine fuel, jet fuel and heating oil» (approved by RF Government
Resolution 27.02.08 g., № 118)].
- Postanovlenie Pravitelstva RF ot 20 yanvarya 2012 g. no. 2 o vnesenii izmeneniy v punkt 13 tekhnicheskogo
reglamenta «O trebovaniyakh k vybrosam avtomobilnoy tekhnikoy, vypuskaemoy v obraschenie na territorii
Rossiyskoy Federatsii, vrednykh (zagryznyyuschikh) veschestv». [Resolution of the Government of the Russian
Federation on January 20, 2012 №2 amending paragraph 13 of the technical regulations «On requirements for
emission motor vehicles manufactured in circulation in the territory of the Russian Federation, harmful
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Neftepererabotka i neftekhimiya — Refining and Petrochemicals. 2009, № 3, pp. 5-10.
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«Company Cathachem», Bull. No. 31, 10.11.2009.
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neftekhimiya — Refining and Petrochemicals. 2011, № 6, pp. 16-19.
- Available at: www.pe.tamu.edu/barrufet/public_html/PETE310/
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Kapustin V.M., Tanashev C.T., Dosmuratov D.E.
(South Kazakhstan state university named after M. Auezov. Shymkent, Kazakhstan; Gubkin russian state university of oil and gas, Moscow, Russia)
Influence of process of catalytic cracking of heavy vacuum distillate
Keywords: catalytic cracking, vacuum gas oil, parameters of process catalytic cracking, cracking.
Abstracts. Ever-increasing demand for motor fuels requires further deepening of oil refining. Growth of oil refining depth is achieved by an increase of the proportion of destructive processes of conversion of weighted distillate fractions boiling above 350°С. One of the most largest processes that let to achieve a successful solution is the process of catalytic cracking. Currently the advanced catalytic cracking feed becomes
the heavy distillates and residuums of various depth slate.
It’s found that using of vacuum gas oil of Kazakhstan sweat crude as feed, boiling point vacuum gas oil might be raised from 480 to 550°С. Whereby resources of catalytic cracking feed grow by 8,3–11,0% mass. So evolution of catalytic cracking principally associated with widening of feedstock base, requirement toughening to feed quality and products that obtained from it, the improvement of catalysts and technologies.
- Kapustin V.M.,Tanashev S.T.,Omaraliev T.O. Catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil in the presence of resin
pyrolysis [Kataliticheskiy kreking vakuumnogo gazoylya v prisutstvii smolyi piroliza]. Neftechimiya, 1988,
no. 2, pp. 218–227.
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oxide cracking catalysts [Izuchenie putey snizheniya koksootlozheniya na poverhnosti okisnyih katalizatorov
krekinga]. Abstracts All-Union report STC, Ufa, 1991.
- Kreking neftyanykh fraktsiy na tseolitsoderzhaschih katalizatorah [Cracking of petroleum fractions on zeolite
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cracking installation path KT-1 Pavlodar refinery on mixture vacuum gas. Neftepererabotka i neftekhimiya –
Refining and Petrochemicals magazine. 1988, no. 10, pp. 3–5.
Doshlov O.I., Konovalov N. P., Speshilov E.G., (Irkutsk state technical university)
New carbonaceous reducing for manufacturing silicon carbide
Keywords: silicon carbide, a reducing agent, petroleum coke, petroleum coke fines, specific surface area, reactivity, silica, drying, pores.
Abstracts. Considered skilled use of all particle size distribution of petroleum coke. Shows the different technology upgrading petroleum coke breeze and identified their strengths and weaknesses. An optimal variant preparation petroleum coke for the production of silicon carbide.
Excessive moisture degrades reducing thermal balance costs since electrofusion heat for evaporation and partially dissociate water, as well as causing increased consumption of the reducing agent due to its oxidation activity of the steam and products of water dissociation. When using wet reductant difficulties with its vibrating screen for sifting, especially in the process of separating fines fr. 0–8 mm. The greatest negative
impact on the whole is not so much the absolute moisture content, as the instability of this indicator is caused by loss of precision blending furnace carbon. It was found that an increase in reactivity and specific surface petroleum coke entails improving the technology of silicon carbide, the reduction of material and capital costs of producing it.
Due to evaporation of moisture and the impact of water vapor on the carbonaceous material can create a positive effect consisting in the steam activation of a reducing agent, accompanied by an increase in its reactivity, and electrical resistivity. The intensity of the recovery depends on the surface accessible oxidant activity of carbon, the reaction mechanism and the conditions of their occurrence.
Humidity petroleum cokes at UT due to the specifics of their discharge from the coking reactor water jets. At the same time discharged coke humidified both by contact with water and water transport at the pore channels and due to «pull» water into the pores of the coke from the condensation of vapor and volume reduction of gas in the pores during cooling of coke
- Belyaev A.E. Konakova R.V. Karbid kremniya: tekhnologiya, svoystva, primenenie [Silicon carbide:
technology, properties and application]. Moscow, Khimiya, 2010. 532 p.
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silicon]. All-Russian scientific-practical Conference «Chemistry and chemical technology», Irkutsk. – 2006. –
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quality of carbonaceous reducing agents). Coll. scientific. tr. XIX All-Russian Student Scientificpractical
conference with international participation «Security 2014». Irkutsk, 22–25 April 2014, pp. 83–85.
- Speshilov EG, Doshlov O.I.Vnutrennyaya struktura neftyanogo koksa i yeye vliyaniye na obshcheye
soderzhaniye vlagi. Materialy IV Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym
uchastiyem «Perspektivy razvitiya tekhnologii pererabotki uglevodorodnykh, rastitel’nykh i mineral’nykh
resursov» (The internal structure of petroleum coke and its impact on the overall moisture content / Proceedings
of the IV All-Russian scientific-practical conference with international participation «Prospects for the
development of hydrocarbon processing technology, plant and mineral resources»). Irkutsk, 24–25 April 2014,
Rafiyeva S.R, Hasanova G.N., Abbasov Ya.A., Mammadov E.E., Ismailov E.H., Nasirov F.A., Tagiyeva A.M., Janibekov N.F. (Institute of Petrochemical Processes Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences)
Para-, Superpara/Ferromagnetic Intermediates in Catalytic Systems of Butadiene Polymerization Based on Dithiophosphate Complexes of Co(II) and Ni(II)
Keywords: para-, superpara/ferromagnetic Intermediates, Butadiene Polymerization, Dithiophosphate Complexes of Co(II) and Ni(II).
Abstracts. The results of spectroscopic and catalytic properties of Co(II) and Ni(II)) dithiophosphate complexes based on mordenit are given. The intermediate paramagnetic complexes and superpara /ferromagnetic clusters of nickel and cobalt in catalytic systems of butadiene polymerization are identified by EMR spectroscopy. By comparing the experimental spectra with theoretically calculated the size of the
magnetic particles produced in the reaction medium is estimated and the changes of the size during the reaction (3–12 nm) is investigated. It is assumed that in these systems under the influence of alkylaluminum Ni (II) and Co (II) ions in starting dithiophosphate complexes are reduced to zerovalent state and further due to
disproportionation reaction complexes of diamagnetic monovalent cobalt and paramagnetic monovalent nickel in the system are formed. The structure and nature of the magnetic centers and their participation as the catalytically active centers of polymerization reactions of butadiene are discussed.
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processes. 2008, no. 3–4 (35–36), рр. 84–97.
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ANALYTIC METHODS FOR OIL and PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
Tsvetkov O.N., Toporishcheva R.I., Kolesova G.E., Cheremiskin A.L.
(The All-Russia Research Institute of Oil Refining JSC)
New tool opportunities in a maslovedeniye
Keywords: oils, viscosity, Stabinger viscometer, base oils, finished oils, density, precision.
Abstracts. In maslovedeniye viscosity, measured in accordance with GOST 33-2000, is the routine and the most often determined parameter for the certification of lubricating oils, therefore simplification and automation of viscosity measurement is of great importance. The article describes application of Stabinger viscometer SVM 3000 for this purpose. The Stabinger viscometer combines the accuracy of standard capillary
viscometers with high speed and convenience in operation of the advanced digital Anton Paar density meters and has the standard mode of viscosity index calculation in accordance with ASTM D2270 and ISO 2909. The measuring cells consist of a pair of rotating concentric cylinders and an oscillating U-tube. The dynamic viscosity is determined from the equilibrium rotational speed of the inner cylinder under the influence of the shear stress of the test specimen and an eddy current brake in conjunction with adjustment data.The density is determined by the oscillation frequency of the U-tube in conjunction with adjustment data. The kinematic
viscosity is calculated by dividing the dynamic viscosity by the density. The new principle of measurementallows to eliminate traditional barriers between capillary and rotational viscometry.Compatibilitywith theearlier used methods of measurement provides the possibility of automatic recalculation oftheresults fromdynamic viscosity tothe kinematic.The methodology of the tests carried outin JSC All-Russian ResearchInstitute of Oil Refinig (VNII NP) covers measurement ofdynamic and kinematic viscosities, densities of base oils and finished oils (motor oils, hydraulic oils, transmission oils, compressor oils, turbineoils, aviation oils) on Stabinger viscometer SVM 3000.The obtained data were compared with results of the tests carried out in
accordance with GOST 33-2000 and GOST 3900-85 with furthercalculation of deviations in valuesobtained byboth methods. Tests on Stabinger viscometer were carried outaccording to ASTM D 7042-04. Deviations of thevalues of kinematic viscositymeasured by both methods were withinthe limits admissible by GOST 33-2000 –
no more than 1,2%, and for density–0,0015 g/cm3in accordance with GOST 3900-85.The performed on Stabinger viscometer tests clearly showthat the results of measurements of kinematic viscosity and density forthe studied oils at different temperatures are identicalto theresults obtained in accordance with GOST 33 andGOST 3900.The kinematic viscosity values at 20°C, 40°C, 50°C, 100°C, minus 20°C and minus 40°C obtained in accordance with GOST33-2000 and on the Stabinger viscometer meetthe admissible deviations in accordance with GOST 33-2000. According to GOST33-2000 kinematic viscosity is measured up to the 30000 mm2/s (inclusively).The obtainedresults form the basis for carrying outinterlaboratory tests underthe authorityofJSC “VNII NP” with the subsequent inclusion ofthis devicein the GOST 33-2000 interstate standard.
- GOST 33–2000 (ИСО-3104–94). Mezhgosudarstvennyy standart. Nefteprodukty. Prozrachye ineprozrachnye zhidkosti. Opredelenie kinematicheskoy vyazkostii raschet dinamicheskoy vyazkosti. [Interstate standard. Petroleum products. Transparentand opaqueliquidsdetermination of kinematic viscosity and
calculation of dynamic viscosity].
- GOST 3900-85 (ISO 2909). Neft’i nefteprodukny. Metody opredeleniya plotnosti[Petroleum and petroleumproducts. Methods for determination of density]. 3.ASTM D 7042-04.Standard TestMethod for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by StabingerViscometer (and the Calculation ofKinematic Viscosity).
- Edward T.Urbansky, John C.Axley Optimization ofa Anton Paar method to maximize sample throughput. Balancing the compiting interestsof speed, cost, and data quality. Joint Oil Analysis Program, TechnicalSupport Center.-NAS Pensacola.–2006 (JOAP-TCS-TR-06-04).
- Irina Nita, Sibel Geacai. Study of density and viscosity forternary mixtures biodiesel+dieselfuel+bioalcohols. Ovidius University Annals of Chemistry. 2012, v. 23, no. 1, pp. 58–62.
- Rukovodstvo po ekspluatatsii viskozimitra Shtabingera SVM3000/G2 firmy Anton Paar[StabingerViscometer SVM 3000/G2 Manual by Anton Paar]. 80 р.
Skobelev D.O., Kovalenko V.P., Vyboychenko E.I.(Federal State Unitary Enterprise «Russian Research Institute on Standardization of Materialsand Technologies», Moscow)
The algorithm offormation restrictive standard ofpetroleum products quality using group method ofdata handling
Keywords: restrictive standard, quality of petroleum products, group method of handling.
Abstracts. This article is devoted tothe problem of determining the restrictive standards of petroleum product quality. Quality indices ofany product are continuously changing during the process of storage, transportation and use. Therefore, quality control is one of the most important component of product life cycle.
The procedure of quality control is impossible without information about regulated value of quality index (restrictive standard), which represents the value established in normative documents. This means that today theproblem of determining the restrictive standards of product quality is relevant.The central part ofthe article is devoted to procedure of analysis possible application of group method of data handling in order to use in calculating the regulated values of product quality. Reviewed and analyzed the three main stages of the simulation in compliance with group method of data handling. Among them: determining a number of models increasing complexity, S; the calculation of the external selection criterion; the choice of the optimal model for minimum criterion. Using group method of data handling assume the choice two criteria: internal, which used to construct the model and external, which used to select the optimal model. This article discusses general classification criteria used in group method of data handling, as well as features of their application in the calculation of restrictive standard. In conclusion, gives an example that illustrates possible outcome of the modeling process. The article considers the case when the optimal model is a linear function. If the model is nonlinear, then the calculation of the restrictive standards will be different from this.
- GOST 15367 – 79 Product quality control. Basic concepts. Terms and definitions.
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