CHEMISTRY and TECHNOLOGY of CARBON MATERIALS
Klimov N.A, Ershov M.A., Duksin-Ivanov V.B., Makarova G.A.
Development of a new composition and testing of aviation gasoline Avgas 100LL
Keywords: aviation gasoline, Avgas 100LL, alkylate, tetraethyllead
Abstract.The article presents the results of the study of Avgas 100LL compositions prepared on the basis of a alkylate with high boiling point value, fractionated isomerate, and toluene. Avgas 100LL is now the most demanded brand in the world. The capabilities of this brand almost completely cover the needs of the Russian piston aircraft and helicopter fleet. Traditionally, the principal component for avgas
blending is aviation alkylate (light fraction of alkylate), with a low value of final boiling point. A few years ago, several Russian companies began production of Avgas 100LL, however there are a problems, one of which is the lack of aviation-alkylate at the Russian refineries. Traditionally, to increase the fuel evaporation characteristics, its composition involves pentane-hexane isomerate, which is a mixture of mainly C5-C7 isoparaffinic hydrocarbons. However, it is impossible to prepare the Avgas 100LL aviation gasoline composition according to the traditional recipe, using a alkylate with high boiling point value instead of aviation alkylate, due to non-compliance with the requirements of the standard, such as final boiling point, temperature of 40% evaporation and vapor pressure. A method is proposed for optimizing
the composition of Avgas 100LL containing alkylate without fractionation due to the use of isomerate fractions C6 and C7+ in its composition. These fractions can be obtained in isomerization units of pentane- hexane fractions with depentanizer and deisohexanizer columns. It was shown that the inclusion in the composition of Avgas 100LL isomerate, rich in C6 isoparaffins (light fraction of deisohexanization column) and isomerate, rich in paraffins and isoparaffins C7+ (bottom fraction of deisohexanization column) meets the requirements to distillation points. It has been established that the using of these
isomerate fractions in the Avgas 100LL compositions instead of C5-C6 isomerate, allows to use of alkylate without fractionations. As a result of tests for compliance with the requirements of GOST 55493- 2013 (ASTM D910) of Avgas 100LL samples, consist of alkylate (FBP=195 °C) in the boundary concentrations (30 and 35%), the light fraction of deisohexanization column (28 and 33%), bottom fraction of deisohexanization column (12%) and toluene (25%), with the addition of 0.53 ml/L TEL, positive results were obtained.
All-Russian Research Institute for Oil Refining [VNII NP JSC], Moscow, KPB VZLET LLC, Egor’evsk, Moscow region
Khairudinov R.I., Bystrov A.I., Tikhonov A.A., Khairudinov I.R.
Process implementation of liquid-phase thermal cracking of high-viscosity oils
Keywords: high-viscosity oil, alternatives for cracking process implementation, comparison of processing effectiveness in terms of the light fraction yield.
Abstract. The article considers two variants of technological schemes for processing of high- viscosity oils with different yield of light fractions (up to 300°C). The dependence of the skimming processing depth is associated with the initial fractional composition of high-viscosity oil. For this purpose, high-viscosity oils produced in various regions of Russia were selected. The first scheme provides the preliminary distillation of light distillate followed by the liquid-phase thermal cracking process of weighted oil, and for the reaction mass sent to the main distillation column the light distillate is used as a chilling-down product. The second scheme eliminates the stage of light distillate distillation, the cooled bottoms of the main distillation column are used in it to chill down the reaction mass. The speciality of the first scheme is that the light distillate withdrawn selectively from the first column after cooling is partially directed: a) to dilute the initial high-viscosity oil; b) as an reflux in the first column; c) as a chilling-down product in the feed line of the reaction mass from the reactor to the second column. Thus, in the product of rectification, derived from the second column, a bottom residue is obtained, in which the secondary compaction processes are minimized, and the secondary distillates that have not experienced these transformations are allocated in whole for the plant in a large volume. The second scheme is simpler and in it the initial high-viscosity oil is fed to the reactor immediately after heating in the furnace in the form of a reaction mass and then after chilling down to the column, and the
chilling-down agent is the bottom product derived from the bottom of the column. The absence of a low-boiling chilling-down agent in scheme 2 leads to the formation of heavier compaction products in a greater degree. High-viscosity oil containing a greater amount of the light fraction and processed according to the scheme 1 was also processed additionally according to the scheme 2. Comparison of the results of high-viscosity oil processing containing 16% of a light distillate, by these two variants, showed that the final product — oil «Syncrude» obtained in the first variant, has a more
acceptable commercial properties: viscosity at 20°C – 90,4 cSt, the yield of light fractions (IBP – 350°C) 54,6% of the masses. The second variant with comparable viscosity values of the final oil allows to obtain a product with the yield of light fractions of only 44% of the mass.
Institute of petroleum refining and petrochemistry, Ufa, Republik of Bashkortostan, Russia
Mukhutdinova E.K., Abdul’minev K.G., Kolyshkina A.I., Tukaev V.R., Yuldashev D.V.
Analysis of the technical condition of the hydrotreatment block of catalytic reforming unit___16-19
Abstract: Abroad and in our country, the volume of production of high-octane gasoline is constantly growing, which makes it necessary to improve the technological processes of their production. In the Russian Federation, gasoline contains the largest amount of catalytic reforming gasoline — 54.1% by volume. Reforming catalysts, both monometallic and, in particular, polymetallic, are sensitive to such catalytic poisons as compounds of sulfur and nitrogen, arsenic and other elements that may be contained
in gasoline fractions. Polymetallic catalysts require the purification of raw materials to a residual content of impurities, % by mass: sulfur – 10 ВХ-101, Х-1/2 has been introduced. -4, nitrogen – 10-4, metals – 10-7.These impurities from the gasoline
fraction are removed in a separate unit in a stream of hydrogen at elevated temperatures on hydrotreating catalysts of the Al-Co-Mo-O and Al-Ni-Mo-O type. We obtained data on the operation of the hydrotreating unit of the catalytic reforming unit of one of the Russian plants. After analyzing the data we have made the following conclusions: The hydrotreating unit provides the required amount of hydrogenate — feed of the reforming unit, while the decrease in the activity of the catalyst S-12 is not
observed. However, it is necessary to note the fact of a significant increase in pressure drop in the hydrotreating unit system, equal to 1.6 MPa, with a maximum allowable 1.8 MPa, complicating the operating conditions of the catalyst; at the same time, the volumetric feed rate decreased slightly (from 4.94 to 4.91 h-1). To prevent the breakdown of low-temperature equipment, a scheme for water washing of refrigerators
Ufa state petroleum technological university, Republik of Bashkortostan, Russia
Rasulov Ch.K., Aghamaliyev Z.Z., Naghiyeva M.V., Amirov F.A.
Some peculiarities of the reaction of aminomethylation of sterically hindered cycloalkylphenols aminoethylnonylimidazoline
Keywords: phenol, methylcycloalkene, aluminum phenolate, sterically hindered phenols, aminoethylnonylimidazoline, formaldehyde, Mannich bases.
Abstract. The results of cycloalkylation of phenol with diprene, dipentene and their mixture in the presence of an aluminum phenolate catalyst and the influence of various parameters on the yield of the desired product are presented. In order to find the optimal conditions ensuring the greatest yield of the desired product, the reaction temperature varied from 260 to 320°C, the reaction time from 3 to 9 hours, the molar ratio of phenol to cyclone from 1: 1 to 1: 3, the amount of the catalyst from 10 to 25%. It was found that the following conditions are necessary for obtaining the maximum yield of 2,6-di-[3 (4)- methylcyclohexene-3-yl-isopropyl]-phenols: temperature 300–350°C, reaction time 7-8 hours, ratio of phenol to methylcycloalkene 1: 2 mol / mol and the amount of the catalyst is 20-25% based on the phenol taken. In this case, the yield of the desired products of 2,6-di-[3 (4)-methylcyclo]-phenols is 40.4–43.3% of the phenol taken. Chromatographic studies of the products of cycloalkylation of phenol with isoprene cyclodimers in the presence of an aluminum phenolate catalyst showed that 2,6-dicycloalkyl-substituted phenols (68.5–77.7%) are mainly contained in the alkylate. After rectification of the alkylate at low pressure (20 mm Hg), the desired products were obtained with a purity of 92.4–94.0%, their physicochemical characteristics were determined. The 2,6-di-[3 (4) -methylcyclohexene-3-yl-isopropyl]- phenols obtained were subjected to aminomethylation with formaldehyde and aminoethylnonylimidazoline in a ratio of 1:2:2. Interaction of 2,6-di-[3(4)-methylcyclohexene-3-yl-isopropyl]-phenols with formaldehyde and aminoethylinonyl imidazoline yielded Mannich bases with a yield of 61.3-69.8% of the theory. Physicochemical parameters of synthesized 4-hydroxy-3,5-di-[3 (4)-methylcyclohexene-3-yl-isopropyl]- benzyl-aminoethylnonyl-imidazolines were determined.
The Institute of Petrochemical Processes named after Yu.H.Mammadaliyev Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences Azerbaijan State Oil and Industrial University
ANALYTIC METHODS FOR OIL and PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
Koval’skiy B.I., Bezborodov Yu.N., Efremova E.A.
Influence of oxidation processes of motor oils on their viscosity-temperature characteristics
Keywords: optical density, viscosity-temperature characteristic, viscosity index, criterion of thermal-oxidative stability.
Abstract. The results of the study of the thermooxidative stability of motor oils, taking into account the viscosity-temperature characteristics and optical density, are presented using such priors as a thermostatic instrument, a photometer and electronic scales. A criterion for thermal-oxidative stability is proposed, which is determined by the product of the optical density and the decimal logarithm of the viscosity index. The linear dependence of the proposed criterion for optical density is established. Based
on these data, it is proposed to classify oils. A comparative characteristic of temperatures among the oils with the same class of operational properties is given. When choosing oils, the viscosity grade and base oil are taken into account. But there are no temperature indicators at which lubricants are most effective, and at which oil oxidation is optimal, ensuring maximum resource. To increase information on the
temperature limits of the performance of lubricants for various purposes by applying their stepwise temperature control and photometric measurement. According to the proposed methodology, studies were carried out that showed a discrepancy between the temperature indices of the processes and the group of operational properties. On the basis of the conducted studies, it was shown that with the same classes of
operating properties, temperatures of oxidation processes, evaporation and temperature transformations, they differ greatly, therefore, choosing an oil for a certain temperature mode of the engine, it is impossible to be guided only by the class of operating properties. It is also proposed to improve the existing classification system for oils.
FSAEI HVE “Siberian Federal University”
Zagashvili Yu.V., Kuz’min A.M.
Substantiation of requirements to accuracy of flowmeters-regulators of control systems of synthesis gas production complexes
Keywords: synthesis gas generator, combustion chamber, partial oxidation, hydrocarbon gases, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, thermodynamic calculations, static characteristics.
Abstract. Gas generators of synthesis gas (GSG), which are the main elements of synthesis gas (SG) production complexes and implement the technology of non-catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbon raw materials, mainly hydrocarbon gases (HCG) with various types by oxidizers-air enriched with air, oxygen are considered. Control of technological processes in the complexes of SG production is carried out with the help of automated control and control systems (ACCS), which include local tracking systems that provide an automated output of GSG in the nominal technological mode and automatic stabilization of the nominal mode parameters during the normal operation of the complex. Flowmeters – mass flow regulators (MFR) which are the precision tracking systems and which are the most expensive elements of ACCS are used as
the executive elements of these systems. The composition and parameters of the SG used for further catalytic synthesis of the target products depend on the determining degree on the accuracy of reproduction of the nominal mode partial oxidation.
Therefore, the actual task considered in the article is the development of methods for selecting the accuracy class of MFR. On the example of partial oxidation of natural gas by air, the features of producing SG for low-tonnage methanol production are considered. The requirements for permissible static errors of reproduction of the
nominal technological mode of partial oxidation are substantiated. It is shown that the maximum permissible errors of the natural gas and air supply to the GSG and the determination of their accuracy class are calculated on the basis of the requirements for the permissible errors of the excess oxidant coefficient. The choice of accuracy class of MFR of the supply of chemical treated water to the evaporating chamber of GSG is calculated on the basis of the requirements to the permissible error of the
gas temperature control at the outlet of GSG. The offered technique of a choice of accuracy class MFR allows you to secure precise control of the process of generating synthesis gas and to optimize the ratio price-quality while making package bundle
ACCS complexes for producing synthesis gas.
EQUIPMENT and DEVICES
Vertical steel oil and oil products tanks spiral dismantling method application in terms of hazardous objects revamping
Keywords: innovation, modern building methods, removal petroleum reservoir, modernization of refineries.
Abstract. Hazardous plants vertical steel tanks dismantling procedures peculiarities are reviewed. Works basic complex factors are classified, i.e. stage tanks replacement at the tank farm, tanks group single embankment, rack of tanks surface poor quality, emergency cases high probability during dismantling procedure. Vertical steel tanks dismantling ordinary methods are reviewed. During hazardous plants revamping vertical steel tanks dismantling is usually carried out by two methods: element-by-
element from top to bottom dismantling and spiral disassembly. Up-to-date tanks spiral disassembly is revealed in detail. The essence of the method is as follows: tank bottom is separated from tank wall by plasma-arc cutting, and then the wall is cut in a spiral direction from the bottom to the top; separated wall stripe is gradually removed by the force of gravity. Vertical steel tanks dismantling methods comparative analysis is reviewed. Vertical steel tanks dismantling method is determined by complex factors, taking into consideration every particular case. In fact, the choice of the dismantling method in some cases is determined by economic factors, rather than safety rules and regulations. The modern approach of the refinery’s operational services implies dismantling procedures operating contractor responsibilities in case of emergencies or accidents. It is worth mentioning, up-to-date and prospective methods of dismantling
procedures in the civil industry introduction is inextricably linked not only with the improvement of normative and technical documentation, but also with the economic efficiency. At present, the capital expenditures are estimated in accordance with the estimate documentation that regulate all contractor payment transactions for the completed works. Construction industry situation, when estimate rates base
is lagging behind civil processes, is not unique, and it interferes with adequate construction works estimation basing on the unified payment system. Thus, at present it is necessary to ensure state policy to achieve successful up-to-date dismantling
methods introduction not only in terms of innovative dismantling methods, typical flow charts and reference books creation but as well in terms of the intrinsic interface of construction methods and estimate rates base.
Design and Engineering Institute of Oil Refining and Petrochemical Enterprises – LLC «Lengiproneftechim»
Prospects of development of the theory of chemmotology
Abstract: The role of the theory of chemmotology as a typically applied science, as well as the place and importance of the theory in the development of disciplines strictly practical orientation is shown. The critical characteristic of the modern state of the theory of chemmotology and prospects of its development is given. The ways of a possible way out of this situation are indicated.
MATERIALS of the PETROCHEMICAL and REFINERS ASSOCIATION
Extracts of the protocol #145 of ANN board meeting of 14.02.2019 /
Subject – Crisis problems in the oil refi ning and petrochemical industry