V. A. Zolotov, V. N. Bakunin
FAE «The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation», «LLC-International»
Low-ash motor oils: technologies and application trends
Keywords: diesel, gasoline engine, engine oils, sulfate ash, properties, specification, test method.
Abstract. Analytical information is presented on the development and implementation of low- and ash-free motor oils in the specifications for promising automotive engines, taking into account global trends in the development of engine building. The technologies of ash-free alkaline number boosters of various composition and structure in motor oils, the features of the use of oils of new categories, including restrictions on the content of sulphate ash in them, are considered. The improvement of the design of these engines, the expansion of the range of their operating conditions determines the specifics of the requirements for the physico-chemical properties of the engine oils used, which in turn provides for changes in the chemical composition of the latter.
The increased content of these elements and sulfate ash has a negative impact on the efficiency of the systems for cleaning and neutralizing harmful exhaust gas particles, and sulfate ash additionally negatively affects the formation of deposits in the zone of the cylinder piston group, on the blades and in the turbocharger nozzle, as well as on valve seats. The necessary neutralizing oil reserve, expressed by the value of its base number, is provided by the use of, in particular, low-ash magnesium sulfonates, amino derivatives of ash-free boosters of various chemical composition and structure in the oil.
During the development of the oil SAE 5w-30, for the first time, the possibilities of using functional additives of domestic production in its composition were taken into account. At the stage of formulation of the additive package, the synergism of the antioxidant action of the ammonium salt of dialkyldithiophosphoric acid with tetra(2-ethylhexyl)thiuram disulfide obtained by oxidation of di(2-ethylhexyl) was established sodiumdithiocarbamate with an aqueous solution of iodine.
A mixture of these heteroorganic compounds in an equimass ratio is recommended as a new high-temperature primary antioxidant. Additional studies have established a sufficient level of anti-wear properties, as well as the inhibitory effect of this mixture in the reactions of accumulation and decomposition of hydroperoxides.
A.А. Gadirov, E.A. Nagiyeva, V.M.Farzaliev
Insitute of Chemistry of Additives of after acad. A.M. Guliyev of Ministry of Science and Education of Azerbaijan
Synthesis of benzotriazole derivatives and their effect on antioxidant properties of synthetic lubricant oil
Keywords: N-derivatives of benzotriazole, synthetic lubricating oils, additive, oxidation, viscosity
Abstract. New N-(aryl(alkylaryl)aminomethyl)-1,2,3-benzotriazoles have been synthesized and their antioxidant properties in the composition of synthetic lubricating oil have been studied. The structure of the obtained compounds was confirmed by IR and NMR spectroscopy.
N-(aryl(alkylaryl)aminomethyl)-1,2,3-benzotriazoles were investigated as additives to synthetic lubricating oils. An ester of pentaerythritol and synthetic fatty acids of the C5-C9 fraction (PEE) was used as a synthetic oil. Effect of synthesized compounds on thermooxidative the stability of synthetic lubricating oil was studied standard method volume oxidation according to GOST 236797-79, for 20 hours at a temperature of 225 ° C, in the presence of steel, aluminum and copper plates.
It has been shown that the obtained antioxidants noticeably delay the process of oxidation of ester oils and are superior in efficiency to the well-known inhibitor phenyl-α naphthylamine.
E.G. Mammadbayli, R.P. Jafarov, G.E. Hadjiyeva, S.V. Ismailova, O.M. Farzalizade
Institute of Petrochemical Processes named after Yu.H Mammadaliyev of the Ministry of Education and Sciences of Azerbaijan
Optimization of the process of obtaining aminomethoxy derivatives of menthol
Keywords: aminomethoxy derivatives of menol, optimization, regression model, adequacy.
Annotation. On the basis of experimental data, a regression mathematical model of the process of obtaining aminomethoxy derivatives of the menthol series based on the three-component Mannich reaction with the participation of menthol, formaldehyde and secondary amines was developed, reflecting the influence of the main technological factors (ratio of initial reagents (mol/mol), temperature (0C), reaction time (h)) on the yield of the target product (%). A statistical analysis of the obtained model was carried out, and the adequacy of the developed model to the experimental data was proved. The optimal values of the input parameters are found, at which the maximum value of the yield of menthol aminomethoxy derivatives is achieved.
Huseynova G.A., Aliyeva N.A., Gasimova G.A., Rashidova S.Y.
Institute of Petrochemical Processes Named after Acad.Y.H. Mamedaliyev Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Study of the catalyst ZSM-5, modified Zr, for the alkylation process of oil distillate fractions
Keywords: ZSM-5, modified zeolite ZSM-5-ZrO2, Х-RAY diffraction, phase composition, alkylation, viscosity index.
Abstract. X-ray diffraction studies of zeolite ZSM-5, zirconyl chloride modifier ZrOCl2∙6H2O and modified zeolite ZSM-5-ZrO2 calcined at temperatures of 200, 400 and 550o С were carried out. It has been determined that the phase composition of samples of the modified ZSM-5-ZrO2 zeolite varies depending on the calcination temperature. An increase in temperature from 200 to 550°C promotes the transition of the amorphous phase to the crystalline one. The crystal structure of the ZSM-5-ZrO2 catalyst calcined at 550°C contributes to an increase in its activity, as a result of which, during alkylation with catalytic cracking gases, the viscosity-temperature properties of the distillate fraction of T-30 turbine oil are significantly improved (viscosity index increases from 49.9 to 150).
Popov A.V. (LLC «PRIAS», Volgograd, Russia)
Fuel gas production technology for the oil refining industry
Keywords: gas, Hydrogenium, furnace, fuel, structure, utilization, phase, ejector, installation, way, mixture, compression, hydrocarbon, device, cleaning.
Abstract. Reducing energy costs for production and reducing air pollution is one of the key tasks today. The main sources of atmospheric air pollution at oil refineries are: tubular heating furnaces — 50%; reactors of technological installations — 12%; flares — 29% and bitumen installations — 9%. Therefore, the development and implementation of methods to reduce harmful emissions and increase energy efficiency during fuel combustion is one of the main environmental objectives. In the process of oil refining, a large number of gas components of different potentials, pressures and homogeneity of the medium are formed. The forming gases are usually sent to the torch as a recyclable product, and the lack of energy resources is compensated by the use of liquid fuel or natural gas. Consequently, the task of better consumption of hydrocarbon gas is being formed with the possibility of reducing the consumption of liquid fuel and natural gas, i.e. increasing the energy efficiency of production, which leads to a reduction in harmful emissions into the atmosphere. To achieve these goals in the oil refining industry, on the example of LUKOIL-Volgogradneftepererabotka LLC, a plant for producing composite fuel gas for oil refining furnaces was developed and a new composite fuel gas based on hydrogen-containing and hydrocarbon gases of its own production was obtained. The composition of the composite fuel gas includes a «blow-off» hydrogen-containing gas, previously burned on a flare.
A.B. Kopiltsova, B.P. Tarasov, Y.A. Kopiltsov (Mendeleev Institute for Metrology)
Haw to resolve the conflict between accuracy and reliability, completeness and timeliness of measurement information
Keywords: oil, measurement accuracy, reliability of results, properties of measurement information.
References. The focus of metrological science on accuracy as a key property of measurement information (MI) does not meet the needs of practice, which are much broader and include reliability, timeliness, completeness and other properties. Recently, these properties are included in metrological standards, but this is more a declaration than real practice. It is shown that there are contradictions between accuracy and other properties of MI. To involve them into metrology is possible by changing the logic and coordinate system, with the inclusion of an optimal control solution and an action leading to a result like Shewhart-Deming cycles.
Gasimova F.I., Jafarov R.P, Aghamaliyev Z.Z., Farzalizade O.M., Hamzaeva G.N.
(Y.H.Mamedaliyev’s Institute of Petrochemical Processes, Baky)
Optimization of the catalytic cycloalkylation process of phenol with 1-methylcyclopentene
Keywords: phenol, 1-methylcyclopentene, catalyst, cycloalkylation, p-(1-methylcyclopentyl) phenol, optimization
Abstract. The work presents the results of a study of the cycloalkylation reaction of phenol with 1-methylcyclopentene and the calculation of a regression mathematical model of the process. KN-30 was used as a process catalyst. The effect of input factors (temperature, time, molar ratios of starting components and amount of catalyst) on the yield and selectivity of para-(1-methylcyclopentyl) phenol was studied. As a result, the optimal conditions for obtaining para-(1-methylcyclopentyl) phenol with high yield and selectivity were found. When studying the reaction of cycloalkylation of phenol with 1-methylcyclopentene in the presence of a KH-30 catalyst, it was found that a high yield of the target product of 71.2% (for taken phenol), a selectivity of -92.8% (for the target product) was obtained under the following conditions: temperature — 110 ° C, duration reactions — 5 hours, the molar ratio of phenol to 1-methylcyclopentene 1:1, the amount of catalyst 10% based on the taken phenol. The chemical structure of the synthesized para-(1-methylcyclopentyl) phenol was confirmed by IR, 1Н and 13С NMR methods and its physicochemical parameters were determined. A regression mathematical model of the cycloalkylation process was calculated and the parameters of the optimal mode were found. With the calculated optimal values of the input variables found, a control experiment was set up, which made it possible to find the yield values of the target product Y1=78%, which indicates the acceptability of the developed regression model.
Bugaev E. S.1,2, Safronov E. M.1,3, Zuikov A. V.1,2, Ershov M. A.1,2, Kapustin V. M.1
(1 Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (SRU), Moscow; 2 LLC “New Technologies Watch Center”, Moscow; 3 Engineering Academy, Russian People’s Friendship University, Moscow)
Software tools for planning and optimization of technological schemes of refineries
Keywords: resource planning, optimization, LP-modeling
Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to review the software for optimization (modernization) of petrochemical enterprises.
Planning process touches upon almost all production stages from corporate level to optimization and finances (figure 1) and consists in coordination of activities of raw materials and reagents supply departments, product sales department, production departments of refinery.
Coordination of interaction of different structural subdivisions of the enterprise is first of all connected with determination of the most economically profitable direction of enterprise development. For example, building the prospective scheme of development or upgrade of a refinery, as well as optimization of separate production processes, such as compounding of intermediate products, optimization of composition of marketable oil products, search for the best initial feedstock, optimization of power consumption and capacity utilization requires application of up-to-date tools of modeling and calculation for a great number of variables. The optimization process helps provide economic benchmarks for production adjustments.
V.L. Lashkhi 1, A.L. Chudinovskikh1, I.R. Tatur2.
(1 JSC firm «NAMI-CHEM», Moscow;2 Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), Moscow)
Calculation of the effectiveness of the actual detergent effect of detergents
Keywords: high-temperature deposits; Detergents; solubilization; motor oil; sedimentation; optical density; active centers.
Abstract. Detergents actively neutralize acidic foods and prevent the formation of deposits at high temperatures. This is realized by solubilization and through the formation of adsorption layers from micelle detergents. The article discusses aspects of the possible calculation of the detergent effect.