#1 2020


DOI 10.32758/2071-5951-2020-0-01-06-14

Kapustin V. M., Khakimov R. V. (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) E-mail: hakimovroman@mail.ru

Industry 4.0. The main development directions of digitalization in refinery

Индустрия 4.0. Основные направления развития цифровизации в нефтеперерабатывающей отрасли

Keywords: industry 4.0, digitalization, automation, oil refining, information systems, BIM, digital asset, digital double, VR, AR, artificial intelligence, Internet of things, big data, Big Data, industrial Internet of things, connected production, connected plant.


The article examined and explained the most widely used big data technologies used in oil and gas companies primarily in the Downstream sector, briefly described various methods of analysis and processing of large amounts of engineering data. The goals and objectives of the comprehensive improvement of technologies and methods for controlling oil refining and petrochemical processes that are capable of improving the quality of production products and their effectiveness on the basis of modern information management methods are described. The advantages of using digital twins are indicated, which gradually allow to achieve a significant increase in economic efficiency both at the level of individual investment and construction projects, and at the level of the company as a whole. Various examples of the use of virtual and augmented reality technologies are considered. The concept of “digital factory” (“connected plant”) is described.



DOI 10.32758/2071-5951-2020-0-01-26-30

Khakimov R.V., Kleymenov P.G. (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) E-mail: hakimovroman@mail.ru

Conceptual model of information system of Project Information Management

Концептуальная модель информационной системы управления информацией проекта

Keywords: integrated automation, oil refining, information systems, BIM, digital asset.


Application of digital models for project information management is the basic tendency in improving generated business-processes for implementation of complex engineering projects, enhancement of performance efficiency at every stage of the industrial project life, as well as optimization of costs and time for design/construction of facilities. In the Russian Federation digital models of project information management are in the making,  international standards are under adaptation, pilot projects are under implementation using means of automation and production management, engineering and technical data acquisition,  knowledge and workflow management at all life-cycle stages. Oil-and-gas holding companies, metallurgical and mining enterprises, civil engineering developers are in the initial testing of these technologies. Worldwide practice of major companies proves the importance of digital models as the basis of engineering information management systems and the pattern of complex pro-jects, data integrated both with entities involved in the project life cycle and a set of information systems applied. The paper suggests the draft of a typical design “A Digital Model of Project Information Management”, which is a complex of architectural-and-technical, organizational and regulatory decisions defining the project MIS structure and principles of its operation.



DOI 10.32758/2071-5951-2020-0-01-32-34

Guevara E. С., Marushkin A.B., Sidorok P.V., Gilmutdinov A.T. (Ufa State Petroleum Technical University – UGNTU, Ufa, ONIX-«Samara», Samara) E-mail: eimysguevara@gmail.com

Cleaning of oil from hydrogen sulfide in hydrocyclone processors

Очистка нефти от сероводорода в гидроциклонных процессорах

Keywords: crude oil, hydrogen sulfide cleaning, hydrocyclone processor, non regenerable hydrogen sulfide neutralizer.


The results of a pilot run to assess the effectiveness of removing hydrogen sulfide from Bashkortostan oils in a hydrocyclone processor are presented. Oil was used, part of which was processed at ELOU, and the other at the oil treatment unit (UPN). The hydrogen sulfide content in them was 132.3 and 365.5 ppm, respectively. The cleaning efficiency was estimated as a decrease in the content of hydrogen sulfide before and after hydrocyclone relative to the initial one. For oil prepared at ELOU, subsequent hydrocyclone at temperatures of 40 and 60 ºС provides the efficiency of its removal of 56.5 and 61.9 %, respectively. For oil treated at the UPN unit, when it is refined in the field of centrifugal forces at temperatures of 50 and 60 ºС, a greater efficiency of its removal is achieved — 63.3 and 69.4%, respectively. Hydrocyclone of the oil prepared at the UPN in the selected technological mode did not allow reducing the content of hydrogen sulfide in it to the requirements of GOST 51858. Alternatively, it is possible to purify such oil in two stages: first, hydrocyclone, and then treatment with an non regenerable reagent-neutralizer, for example, “Darsan-N”. At the same time, due to the removal of a significant part of the hydrogen sulfide in the first stage, the reagent consumption is more than halved compared to the treatment of the original oil. All samples of oil refined in a centrifugal force field comply with GOST requirements for saturated vapor pressure. Hydrocyclone was carried out at 40-60 ºС, which is 100-120 degrees higher than the boiling point of hydrogen sulfide. At the same time, its residual content in oil exceeded the requirements of the standard up to two times. The most probable cause of this phenomenon is apparently associated with the formation of donor-acceptor complexes of hydrogen sulfide with oil components. Therefore, the option of purification from hydrogen sulfide with the sequential use of two different technological methods seems logical.



DOI 10.32758/2071-5951-2020-0-01-35-38

Medzhibovskiy A.S., Kolokolnikov A.S., Savchenko A.O. (Qualitet Group; LLC Qualitet) E-mail: savchenko-ao@yandex.ru

Tert-butylated triphenyl phosphate — prospective synthetic fire resistant turbine fluid

Трет-бутилированный трифенилфосфат – перспективная синтетическая огнестойкая турбинная жидкость

Keywords: Fire-resistant fluids, hydraulic fluids, phosphate esters, tert-butylated triphenyl phosphate.s


Fire resistant fluids based on trixylyl phosphates are widely used in the regulation and lubrication system of steam turbine units of nuclear and some thermal power plants. Because of the unavailability of the xylenol’s fraction of coal tar used to obtain these products, the elimination of dependence on imports and the resumption of the production of synthetic fire resistant fluids based on triarylphosphates is only possible when switching to another alkylphenol feedstock available in the Russian Federation.

The article briefly describes the stages of development of fire resistant phosphate fluids in Russia and the possible prospects for the transition to new generation turbine fluids. In this work the use of partly alkylated triphenyl phosphates as an alternative to trixylyl phosphates was proposed. It is more reasonable to choose tert-butylated triphenyl phosphates rather than isopropylated ones because of the worse thermo-oxidative stability caused by the vulnerability of tertiary carbon atom in isopropyl group toward oxygen biradical. That is why the nature of the change in the main physicochemical and operational properties of tert-butylated triphenyl phosphate compositions depending on the phenol/tert-butyl phenol ratio in the initial phosphorylation mixture was shown. In particular, it was demonstrated that with an increase in the degree of alkylation, i.e. with a decrease in the phenyl/tert-butylphenyl ratio in the mixed phosphate esters, an increase in the flash point (in the open cup), kinematic viscosity and air release time occurs. Meanwhile the auto-ignition temperature and density tend to decrease.

It was found that after reducing the air release time so that it could meet the requirements, we can roughly talk about the suitability of TBPP (60/40) as an affordable and at the same time more toxicologically safe alternative to the conventionally used imported trixylyl phosphate without loss in operational properties. In order to give an unequivocal claim about the possibility of replacement TXP with TBPP (60/40) the additional tests (beyond the properties covered by regulation documents) must be carried out, for instance, hydrolytic, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability, heat capacity and thermal conductivity, erosion activity toward sealing materials, etc.



DOI 10.32758/2071-5951-2020-0-01-39-41

Abdulminev K.G., Kolyshkina A.I., Tukaev V.R., Vorobyova O.A., Salimov A.R. (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, Ufa) E-mail: vadim.1996tu@bk.ru

Study of the technology of high-octane gasoline components with improved environmental properties

Исследование технологии высокооктановых компонентов бензинов с улучшенными экологическими свойствами

Keywords: catalytic reforming, hydroisomerization, reduction of aromatic hydrocar-bons in gasolines, hydrogenation of six-membered naphthenes into five-membered.


Today, there are many options for recovering benzene. One such process is reformate hydroisomerization.

The article presents a study of the effect of the hydroisomerization parameters of the NK-115 ° C fraction of the reformate of the LCh-35-11 / 600 installation, obtained in hard mode, on the detonation parameters of hydroisomerizate and gasoline, obtained by mixing the hydroisomerizate with the residual reformate fraction of 115 ° С — c.k.

The study was conducted on a pilot installation with a circulation of hydrogen-containing gas at a temperature of 200-430 ° C, a pressure of 3 MPa and a volumetric feed rate of 2 h-1. The process was carried out using IP-62 alumina-platinum catalyst.

The obtained components of gasoline in terms of antiknock properties are close to the initial reformat or exceed it. The aromatic content in them is reduced by 10% of the mass. and more due to the hydrogenation of lower aromatic hydrocarbons.



DOI 10.32758/2071-5951-2020-0-01-42-46

Abbasov V.M., Aliyev B.M., Hasanova R.Z., Abdullayev S.E., Mamedov A.M., Nabiyeva N.D., Kafarova N.F. (Institute of Petrochemical Processes named after academician Yu.G. Mamedaliev of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan) E-mail: lab.21@mail.ru

Composition and properties of base oils for the preparation of high-quality motor oils

Состав и свойства базовых масел для приготовления высококачественных моторных масел

Keywords: synthetic oils, semi-synthetic oils, mineral oils, physicochemical properties, structural-group composition, PMR spectroscopy.


The article gives the physicochemical and structural-group characteristics of synthetic, semi-synthetic and mineral oils of foreign companies and for comparison, the indicators of semi-synthetic oil of the SAE15W-40 type, prepared in the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of Azerbaijan, are used. using base oil from Balakhani oil with a foreign additive package.

The preparation of mineral oil of group I is carried out by extraction and dewaxing processes. Most of the sulfuric, aromatic and nitrogenous compounds are removed from the vacuum gas oil with a selective solvent, then dewaxing is carried out (paraffins are precipitated and filtered) and the dewaxed oil is subsequently subjected to hydrotreatment.

To obtain group II oils, the process begins with the vacuum gas oil being passed through the first hydrocracking reactor at a very high pressure. In the second reactor (catalytic dewaxing), the wax molecules are converted to isoparaffins and then the remaining aromatic compounds are saturated again – group II oils are obtained.

To obtain group III oils, a rigorous process is carried out in a hydrocracking reactor. The hydrocracking and hydroisomerization catalyst consists of alumina and silica in layers: silica – aluminum – zirconium composite material.

Synthetic oils are produced as a result of directed petrochemical synthesis. Samples of synthetic oils of various companies (Lexus, Comma, Rektol) are slightly different from other samples of semi-synthetic and mineral oils (Castrol, Nordiks) have high viscosity index values, low pour point.

Semi-synthetic oils have been developed at the Institute of Chemical Economy of ANAS using dearomatized samples of oils from Balakhani oil with the content of aromatic hydrocarbons from zero to 10% as a base component. The viscosity index of dearomatized mineral base components is in the range 62-76.7, i.e. It does not even reach 80 units in comparison with analogues.

The structural-group composition of the oils was investigated using PMR spectroscopy. The spectra were recorded on a Bruker pulsed Fourier spectrometer (Germany) at an operating frequency of 300.18 MHz in a solution of deuterated chloroform at room temperature. The relative content of protons of various structural groups was determined by integrating the corresponding resonance absorption bands.

It was found that in terms of the structural group composition, dearomatized mineral base oils differ from hydrocracking oils and highly purified neutral oil SN-180 in a lower hydrogen content in paraffin structures.

The PMR spectroscopy was used to study the structural parameters (the distribution of hydrogen by structural groups, as well as the Nparaf./Nnaft. ratio) of the base oil components – highly purified mineral T-46, synthetic and semi-synthetic. It was shown that a low level of the viscosity index (<80) of the mineral base component in the structure is associated with the ratio Hparaf./Nnaft. – 3.19-3.73. An increase in the viscosity index of the base component is possible by adding a synthetic component of 10-20%, to obtain a semi-synthetic base component with viscosity index ≥90, where Nparaf./Nnaft. rises to 4.34-4.60.



DOI 10.32758/2071-5951-2020-0-01-47-57

Ivanov A.V. (FAE «The 25th State Research Institute of Himmotology of Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation», Moscow) E-mail: alexeyiwanov2007@yandex.ru

The actual version of the SAE J300 specification

Актуальнаяспецификация SAE J300:2015

Keywords: performance, specifications, history, MRV TP-1 method, CCS method, HTHS method, SAE viscosity classes, market place, review, engine oils, engines.


The paper considers the key points of the origin and development of the Engine Oil Viscosity Classification SAE J300 from it beginning in 1911 to the actual edition: brief case history, evolution of the rheological properties owing to the «thickend oils», containing viscosity modifiers and synthetic based oils, MRV (Mini-Rotor Viscometer), CCS (Cold Cranking Simulator) и HTHS viscosity methods, appearance of the new viscosity classes and its value to the runnimg and performance of the passenders cars and heavy-duty truck diesel engines. The fundamentals of actual SAE J300:2015 specification have discussed.

It was emphasized that the key point of the performance specification is the fact of heading for the «thicking» non-Newton engine oils because of its unique performance and very high share in the world consumption significantly exceeding the share of single-season one. The nuances of the specification constrained with SAE 40 viscosity class and HTHS viscosity values have explained as well as role of the HTHS viscosity value providing for the current tendendencies of the automotive development sach as fuel economy and reducing emission.

The detail information regarding use of this performance specification for the development of the current motor oils market place reviewed. Most vehicle manufacturers today specify 5W-20 or 5W-30 for newer vehicles for year-round driving. Some cars specify 0W-20, 0W-30, 0W-40 or 5W-40 for their vehicles.

The right reccommendation to use motor oils is that: always use the motor oil viscosity recommended by your vehicle manufacturer. Using a different viscosity (thinner or thicker) may cause oil pressure and oil supply problems, especially in late-model engines with cylinder deactivation and/or variable valve timing (VVT).

The main motor oils for today commercial trucks heavy-duty engines are SAE 15W-40, 10W-30, 10W-40, 5W-40, 5W-30 and HTHS viscosity to be 3,0-4,2 мPа·с.

The main motor oils for today passengers cars are 0W-20, 0W-30, 10W-30, 5W-20, 5W-30 and HTHS viscosity 2,6-3,1 мPа·с.



DOI 10.32758/2071-5951-2020-0-01-58-62

Mukhtarova G.S., Abdullayeva Yu.A., Hasanova R.Z., Alekperova N.G., Shakhverdiyeva A.F., Aliyeva S.A., Gafarova N.F. (The Institute of Petrochemical Processes named after Y.H. Mammadaliyev, Azerbaijan NAS) E-mail: lab.21@mail.ru

Comparative Characteristics of the oils of the Absheron oil and gas region

Сравнительная характеристика нефтей Абшеронского нефтегазового района

Keywords: oil of the West Absheron field, Absheron kupesi, gasoline fraction, diesel fraction, kerosene fraction, oil fraction, bitumen.


The purpose of this article is a comparative study of the qualitative characteristics of the heavy oils of the West Absheron field with the previously studied oil of the Absheron Kupesi field and the issuance of recommendations for their rational use.

In the course of the research, it was found that the gasoline fraction 85‑180°C of the studied oils can serve as raw material for catalytic reforming.

The kerosene fractions 120‑130 and 150‑280°C from both oils, according to the main indicators, satisfy the requirements of AZS 116‑2004 for lighting kerosene of the KO‑20 brand.

The fractions of 120 230 ° C of oils meet the requirements for raw materials for jet fuels of the TS‑1 and Jet A brands according to a set of indicators. And the fraction of 150‑280°C can serve as a component of jet fuel.

Fraction 140 320 ° C from West Absheron oil in its performance meets the requirements of GOST 305-82 for winter diesel fuel. Fractions 140‑350 and 180‑350°C from both oils can be used as components of diesel fuel.

The study of oil fractions (350‑500°C) from Absheron Kupesi and West Absheron oil showed that they have a very low viscosity index (0‑20.6). After selective cleaning, hydroprocessing, as well as the subsequent two-stage selective cleaning and adsorption cleaning, it is possible to increase the VI to 46. After adding the appropriate additives, it is possible to obtain motor oils with a viscosity index of 100 and higher.

Residues obtained >500°С from the oils of the West Absheron and Absheron kupesi deposits were investigated. According to the formula of BashNII NP, the possibilities of obtaining bitumen from residues >500°C were evaluated. It was found that bitumen can be obtained from these residues.

According to the results, the data of the studied oils can be processed together according to the fuel and oil scheme.