Nazarova G. Yu., Ivashkina E. N., Ivanchina E. D., Oreshina A. A., Vymyatnin E. K., Kaliev T. A., Popov R. D., Antonov A. V., Seytenova G. Z. (National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia, S. Toraighyrov Pavlodar State University, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan)
The modeling of Kazakhstan and West Siberian oil mixture vacuum gas oil catalytic cracking industrial unit
Моделирование работы промышленной установки каталитического крекинга вакуумного газойля из смеси казахстанской и западно-сибирской нефти
Keywords: catalytic cracking, riser reactor, mathematical model, vacuum gas oil, group composition, unstable gasoline, wet gas, octane number, process conditions.
The paper presents the results of catalytic cracking industrial unit modeling. The feedstock of the unit is a vacuum gas oil composed of Kazakhstan and West Siberian oil mixture. The process mathematical model based on the formalized conversion scheme involving hydrocarbon compounds of feedstock, gasoline fraction, gas, coke, propane-propylene and butane-butylene fractions. The model takes into account the thermodynamic and kinetic regularities of high molecular weight hydrocarbons catalytic cracking. The feedstock and products composition was determined by liquid-solid and gas chromatography. This results were used for solving the inverse chemical kinetics problem, as well as in predictive calculations of process conditions, feedstock compositions and sludge consumption in a wide variation interval. Applying the catalytic cracking model allows the comprehensive assessment of the feedstock composition and process conditions effect on the process temperature, products yield and composition. The model also enables to adjust the riser process conditions to increase the target products yield considering the feedstock composition. It also allows to predict the riser temperature regime, taking account of the regenerated catalyst and feedstock temperature, catalyst circulation ratio, primary and secondary reactions thermal effect.
Nelyubov D.V., Scherbakov P.Yu., Chernisheva A.V., Beresneva E.V., Crivorak Ya.S. (The 25th State Research Institute of chemmotology of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation)
Changes of composition and quality indexes of diesel fuel versus the time of its oxidation and storage
Изменение состава и показателей качества дизельного топлива при его искусственном окислении и опытном хранении
Keywords: test-storage, acid value, lubricity, gum content in fuels by jet evaporation, diesel fuel, oxidation, particle contamination, IR spectroscopy, oxidation products, cetane number.
Paper describes the results of investigation the changes of chemical composition and quality indexes of EURO diesel fuels with the different distillation composition and components at the time of its storage and oxidation. It was found a tendency of degradation the lubricity most of tested fuels by the research of changes of its lubricity and acid values at least of 2,4,6,8 and 16 hours of its oxidation at 110 ºС and test-storage at least of 18-21 months on the unheated store in the conditions of temperate climate in the steel oilcans by 10 liters, and steel barrels by 200 liters. Research of water contention influence on the oxidation stability of summer and winter sorts of diesel fuels, which were produced by one oil-refinery with the equal additives, via the comparison the squares of IR specters of tested fuels with the quality indexes of acid value, gum content in fuels by jet evaporation and lubricity is demonstrated that the speed of oxidation processes is increased with the increasing of water contention from 40-50 mg/kg to 190-200 mg/kg. The same time the changes of lubricity of tested fuels depends of fat-acids contention in tasted fuels which able to absorb the metal surface, which accumulation and expenditure in the diesel fuels with increased water contention are accelerated.
Modification of low-octane gasoline to improve its environmental performance
Модификация низкооктанового бензина для улучшения его эколого-эксплуатационных характеристик
Makhmudov M.J. (Bukhara engineering – technology institute) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: gasoline, aromatic hydrocarbons, azeotrope distillation, extraction, rectification, adsorption.
In recent years, with an increasing number of ground vehicles with internal combustion engines, the need for fuel, including motor gasoline, has increased significantly. It is known that during the operation of vehicles, a large number of exhaust gases are emitted into the atmosphere, containing such substances as carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides and benzapyrenes. The main source of education benzapyrene are aromatic hydrocarbons, primarily benzene. In this regard, the content of aromatic hydrocarbons in motor gasoline is subject to strict environmental requirements Euro-5.
The paper uses a set of classical and modern research methods that allow us to determine the physical, physical and chemical characteristics, functional composition, to study the processes occurring in the original automobile gasoline and gasoline subjected to various processes of ennobling, in particular, dearomatization, as well as to establish the chemical composition, structure, chemical nature and their stability. It should be noted that the industry gasoline AI-80 does not meet the quality requirements of the European Standard.
As the object of research was taken gasoline AI-80. All studies were conducted in accordance with State standards and generally accepted practical guidelines for the analysis of petroleum products.
In order to meet the European specifications of gasoline Euro-5, it became necessary to develop processes for refining gasoline.
The benzene-containing fraction of low-octane gasoline was determined. The optimal parameters of the hydroisomerization process in the presence of Nickel-and tungsten-based catalysts have been established. The method of modification of low-octane gasoline produced by the oil refining industry to improve the environmental situation of the environment and reduce the amount of aromatic hydrocarbons in motor gasoline is presented.
The results obtained can be the basis for conducting research on a large scale in the laboratory, as well as production tests.
УДК 547-316; 542.913/547, 578.6; 541, 135:541.138
Mustafayev N.P., Novotrozhina N.N., Musayeva B.I., Safarova M.R., Ramazanova Yu.B., Ismayilov I.P., Mustafayeva Y.S. (Academician A.Guliyev Institute of Chemistry of Additives of NAS Azerbaijan, Baku) E-mail: email@example.com
Synthesis of new chloro derivatives of 1,3-dioxolane and obtaining on them basis load-carrying additives
Синтез новых хлорпроизводных 1,3-диоксолана и получение на их основе противозадирных присадок
Keywords: dioxolane, glycerin, mono- and disulfide, mineral oil, load-carrying properties
On the basis of a-chloropropanediol and dialkyl ketones, 2,2-dimethyl-4-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolanes were synthesized.
By condensation of 2,2-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolane with monochloroacetic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-4-chloromethylcarboxymethyl-1,3-dioxolane was synthesized, the latter was also obtained by counter synthesis by the interaction of a-chloromethylcarboxymethylpropanediol with dimethylketone. Based on the obtained chlorine-containing derivatives of 1,3-dioxolane, a number of mono- and disulfides were synthesized. It has been established that they possess high load-carrying properties in AK-15 mineral trans mission oil.
On the basis of hydroxymethylchloroacetamide and 2,2-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolane, 2,2-dimethyl-4-chloromethylcarbamoylmethyloxymethyl-1,3-dioxolane was synthesized, the interaction of which with N, N-diethyldithiocarbamate gave S(N-2,2-dimethyl-4-methyloxymethyl-1,3-dioxolane) carbamoylmethyldiethyldithiocarbamate.
The possibility of obtaining the indicated compound was also shown by the interaction of 2,2-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolane and S-hydroxymethylcarbamoylmethyldiethyl dithiocarbamate. The S-hydroxymethylcarbamoylmethyldiethyldithiocarbamate used is based on S-carbamoylmethyldiethyldithiocarbamate and paraform in an alkaline medium. It was found that S(N-2,2-dimethyl-4-methyloxymethyl-1,3-dioxolane) carbamoylmethyldiethyldithiocarba¬mate has high load-carrying properties in synthetic essential oil (PEE).
Global requirements for properties and test methods engine oils for new engines
Глобальные требования к свойствам и методам испытаний моторных масел для новых двигателей
Zolotov V.A. (FAE «The 25th State Research Institute of Himmotology of Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation», Moscow)
Keywords: automotive motor oils, performance properties, specification, method of test, engine, fuel economy, exhaust emissions.
The contribution of motor oil to fuel economy is an important part of the search for solutions in the field of fuel economy in the operation of machinery. The use of thickened oils with a lower viscosity can reduce friction under hydrodynamic conditions and is one of the strategies used. At the same time, there is a balance in the requirements for providing low-viscosity oils with protection against wear of rubbing steam at high heat load on the one hand and longer oil change intervals on the other.
Japanese OEMs have taken the lead in offering engine oils with lower viscosity grades 0W-16 and SAE 0W-20 according to SAE. While the ILSAC GF-6B specification is applicable to existing SAE 0W-16 oils as part of the development of a new gasoline engine standard, Japanese OEMs are seeking to introduce ultra-low viscosity engine oils, such as 0W- 8 according to SAE, for which the dynamic viscosity at 150 °C and shear rate of 10-6 s is from 1.7 to 2.0 MPa s, and the kinematic viscosity at 100 °C is 4.0-6.1 mm2/s. However, the Sequence VIF oil test, used to evaluate fuel economy, is not applicable for oils of viscosity SAE 0W-12 and lower, which emphasizes the need for a new fuel economy test method.
At present, when the requirements for the new categories of engine oils CK-4 and FA-4 according to API for heavy diesel engines and the categories ILSAC GF-6 A and B for gasoline engines of cars are set, the key factors for the development of these specifications are the adjustment of engine equipment, reducing exhaust emissions and increasing fuel economy.
Ivanov A.V. (FAE «The 25th State Research Institute of Himmotology of Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation», Moscow) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Engine Oil Licensing and Certification Systems in USA and Europe.
Лицензирование и сертификация моторных масел в США и Европе
Keywords: engine oil, performance characteristics, motor tests, bench tests, harmonization, licensing, certification, code of practice, standard.
The harmonization of the current motor and bench tests of USA Standard Specification for Performance of Active API Service Category Engine Oils (USA) and ACEA Oil Sequences (Europe) with tests are now in progress in Russian Federation is important to produce motor oils of premium quality in Russia. The paper considers the key points of Engine oil Licensing and Certification System – API EOLCS and European Engine Lubricant Quality Management System – EELQMS. With reference to API EOLCS it describes methods for developing new engine oil performance standards, the API Marks and their use, licensing requirements, aftermarket conformance, and enforcement procedures. It also explains the interaction and roles of the various independent organizations that are part of the API EOLCS: API, The American Chemistry Council (and its Product Approval Code of Practice — ACC Code), Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association, Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, ASTM International, SAE International and International Independent Lubricant Manufacturers Association.
Just the same areas of EELQMS are concerned. The independent organizations, stakeholders and marketers involved are: Association Technique de l’Industrie Européenne des Lubrifiants – ATIEL (and its Code of Praсtice (ATIEL Code), Technical Committee of Petroleum Additive Manufacturers, Association des Constructeurs Européens d’Automobiles (and ACEA European Oil Sequences), Coordinating European Councilс and European Registration Center.
Pimenov Yu.M., Poplavsky I.V. (Federal Autonomous Enterprise «The 25th State Research Institute for Chemology, Ministry of Defense of Russian Federation», Moscow)
Test Method for Stability Features of Aviation Hydraulic Fluids
Метод исследования стабильности свойств гидравлических жидкостей для авиационной техники
Keywords: aircraft engineering, hydraulic fluids, viscosity, oxidation stability, test methods, similarity, simulation, experiment, integral estimate.
An express and cost-effective method of enhancing the informative value of stability assessment of hydraulic fluids’ properties has been proposed. The new test method provides a quantitative generalized (integral) expression and comparison of the potential hydraulic fluids property changes depending on their composition and operating conditions. Under the new method, the hydraulic fluids for modern aircraft testing is performed in conditions functionally similar to full-scale bodies, which allows to obtain the maximum of information about the properties of liquids and significantly reduce expenses. The simulation results allow to introduce a generalized feature of the hydraulic fluids properties under assessment, which is an integral estimate, characterizing the potential degradation of hydraulic fluids within the specified ranges of the key factors of application conditions. The numerical values of integral estimate demonstrate a relative advantage of one hydraulic fluid over another.