Topic of the issue: analytical methods for quality control of petroleum and petroleum products
Kopiltsova A. B., Tarasov B. P., Kopiltsov U. A.
Fuzzy measured environment (FMI) as the key factor errors while quality control of crude oil, oil products and oil pollution (Practical review)
Voytenko M. V., Zaharova M. S., Vagina A. O.
Analytical possibilities of ARL OPTIM’X and ARL PERFORM’X XRF spectrometers in petroleum industry
Arlynskiy D. A. New solutions for the old problems: low-temperature characteristics of diesel fuels — new testing opportunities and benefits for the users chemistry and technologies of oil-refining
Khairudinov I. R., Telyashev E. G., Tikhonov A. A.
Experience in solving the problem of effective deep processing tar at TANECO JSC Lubricants
Rajesh J. Shah
IF-WS2 Nanoparticle Additives for High Performance Water-Based Lubricants
Abbasov V.M., Abdullayev S.E., Hasanova R.Z., Gafarova N.F., (Institute of Petrochemical Processes named after academician Yu.G.Mammadaliyev NAS of Azerbaijan), E-mail: email@example.com
Modern environmental requirements for lubricating oils
Современные экологические требования к смазочным маслам
Keywords: lubricating oils, environmental requirements, Euro standards, sulfur and phosphorus, sulfate ash.
Abstract. With each new environmental standard, the use of low-viscosity oils is increasing, helping to reduce fuel consumption. Currently, there are recommendations for the use of Mid-Ash MidSAPS engine oils. In the classification of motor oils (ACEA) there is a class «C», all categories of this oil are compatible with catalysts, universal for both gasoline and diesel engines of light vehicles.
In 2020, the IPCP of the Azerbaijan NAS carried out studies with financial support from the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Science Development Fund (Grant EİF-KETPL-2-2015-1(25)-56/26/4) high-quality oils with basic components were developed as if fully synthetic and semi-synthetic, with foreign additive packages, which are characterized by low sulfate ash content, low phosphorus content and TBN.
These oils have been tested in Germany at Forschungszentrum with positive results. It is concluded that these samples in the operational class correspond to the viscosity class CI-4 and CI-4 Plus in engines in which the requirements for soot formation are tightened. These oil samples satisfy the environmental requirements of the standards for Euro 4, 5 and 6 for sulfur, phosphorus and sulphated ash.
In the classification of motor oils by ACEA there is a class «C», all categories of which are compatible with catalysts, class “C” oils reduce fuel consumption by several percent.
УДК 665.761 + 661.66
Nanosized additives in lubricant
Basakina T.V., Bartko R.V., Antonov S.A., Krizhevskaya E.T., Danilov A.M
(LLC RN-StroyKontro1, JSC «All-Russia Research Institute of Oil Refining» (JSC «VNII NP», Moscow)
Keywords: nanoscale additives, graphene, dispersions
Abstract. The options for adding nanoscale additives in lubricants: oils, greases and composite materials are considered. The effect of increasing the antiwear properties of lubricants with additives is noted, which consists in modifying the surface and reducing friction coefficients. However, each additive has its own limited conditions, and it often requires the development of methods for dispersing and appending nanoparticles into a lubricant.
Thermolysis mechanism of fuel components for jet engines
Механизм термолиза компонентов топлив для реактивных двигателей
Anisimov D.I., Juravleva V.D., Lihterova N.M.
(Federal Autonomous Enterprise «The 25-th State Research Institute of Himmotology, Ministry of Defence of Russian Federation», Moscow)
Keywords: propensity to form deposits, fuel injectors, aviation kerosene, thermal oxidation stability, thermolysis, oxidation mechanism, radical reactions.
Abstract. The article presents literature data on mechanisms of temperature deposits formation in fuel systems of aviation gas turbine engines. Two main ways of formation of deposits are distinguished: liquid-phase auto oxidation at low temperatures (150-360 °С) (thermo-oxidative stability), and also gas or supercritical pyrolysis and cracking at high temperatures (> 400 °С) (thermolysis). The data on the effect of antioxidants and hydroperoxides formed during thermal oxidation on thermolysis are also presented. It is shown that these mechanisms do not reflect real operating conditions of some aircraft gas-turbine engine systems, such as fuel injectors, where dissolved oxygen is most likely mixed with thermolysis. In this connection, a scheme of deposit formation, including the stages of oxygen oxidation and thermolysis, has been proposed. Based on this scheme, a gross model of deposit formation will be developed for use in a mathematical model describing the functioning of fuel channels of aircraft gas turbine engines.
Ivanov A. V. (FAE «The 25th State Research Institute of Himmotology of Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation», Moscow)
Explanation of Standard Specification for Performance of Active API Service Category Engine Oils
Система требований к уровню эксплуатационных свойств моторных масел американского института нефти (API)
Keywords: API, engine oils, standards, motor test methods, bench test methods, service categories, service symbol, read-across, oil interchangeability, low speed pre-ignition, resource conserving.
Abstract. The publication describes major aspects of the currently active American Petroleum Institute (API) engine oil performance categories that have been defined as «S» category: SN Plus, SN, SM, SL, SH and «C» category: FA-4, CK-4, CJ-4, CI-4, CH-4. The basic descriptions of every category were involved. It was underlined this specification is based on engine test results that generally have been correlated with results obtained on reference oils in actual service engines operating with gasoline or diesel fuel. All motor and bench test methods specified for above mentioned categories were reviewed. The Base Oil Interchangeability Guidelines – BOI, API Guidelines for SAE Viscosity-Grade Engine Testing – VGRA and Read-Across rule, Resource Conserving oils, Low Speed Pre Ignition — LSPI were explained. The fundamentals of FA-4 and CK-4 service categories have discussed.
Influence of Operational Factors on Evaluating Method Indicators of Thermal Oxidative Stability of Aviation Kerosene Under Dynamic Conditions
Влияние эксплуатационных факторов на показатели метода оценки термоокислительной стабильности авиакеросинов в динамических условиях
Astafyev V.A., Anisimov D.I.
(Federal Autonomous Enterprise «The 25th State Research Institute
for Himmotology of Ministry of Defence of Russian Federation», Moscow)
Keywords: thermal oxidative stability of jet fuel, indicators of the TOS evaluating method, operational factors of the TOS evaluating method
Abstract. On the laboratory unit for evaluation of thermo-oxidative stability (TOS) of aviation kerosene under dynamic conditions the following regularities were obtained: test temperature, time of fuel stay in the heating zone and activity of the heat-low-water surface. Extreme dependence of the values of the index speed of pressure drop increase on the control filter W on the time of fuel stay in the heating zone τpreb, with its maximum value of 80 seconds was found. There is also shown a linear increase in the values of the sediment quantity in the estimating tube ΔE from the time of fuel staying in the heating zone τ, with the change of the straight line slope angle at τpreb also equal to 80 seconds. It was found that index of sediment formation beginning temperature does not depend on test temperature and time of fuel staying in the heating zone, but depends on activity of evaluation tube surface.
Associated gas purification of hydrogen sulfide reagent «DARSAN-N»
Очистка попутного нефтяного газа от сероводорода реагентом «ДАРСАН-Н»
Spirina E.A.1, Sidorok P.V.2, Marushkin A.B.1, Korotkova L.N.1, Andrianova A.O.1
(1 FSBEI HPE «Ufa State Petroleum Technological University» [USPTU], 2 ООО «Onyx – Samara» LLC, Russia)
Keywords: associated petroleum gas, hydrogen sulfide, gas purifier with non-regenerable reagent.
Abstract. Due to the lack of technology for the efficient purification of associated petroleum gas (APG) from hydrogen sulfide in the field, a number of marginal and partially depleted fields are operated with limited production, mothballed, or utilized by burning gas. The paper considers the possibility of purification of APG from hydrogen sulfide with the non-regenerative reagent «Darsan-N». During industrial tests, the hydrogen sulfide neutralizer at specific ratios of the reagent to hydrogen sulfide of 8: 1, 10: 1 and 12: 1 was supplied by mass to the flow of associated petroleum gas discharged from the second separation stage of the preliminary water discharge unit. It has been established that the greatest efficiency of the use of the reagent is achieved with constant circulation, intensive mixing with gas and replacement every 3-4 hours. In this case, the content of hydrogen sulfide in the purified gas is reduced by almost 500 times. The product obtained as a result of purification of the reaction of the reagent with hydrogen sulfide can be used to treat the produced and produced water injected into the formation to reduce bio-contamination in the reservoir pressure maintenance system. It also seems very promising to use it at landfills for storage and disposal of municipal solid waste as a disinfectant for the decomposition products of their organic parts.