Lavrentjev V.A., Golovina E.S.
(AO «Samaraneftehimproject», Samara)
Formulating regression equations for the virtual analyzers of the main quality factors of the alkylation process
Построение регрессионных уравнений для виртуальных анализаторов основных показателей качества процесса алкилирования
Keywords: APC, APCS, virtual analyzers, crude oil refining, petrochemistry, alkylation, regression.
Abstract. The growth prospects of the chemical and petrochemical industries are shaped by the necessity of developing and implementing advanced technological solutions for improving operational performance of production by the effect of selecting the most suitable process parameters and predicting quality factors of the end products once very minute. The task of continuous product quality control may be successfully resolved by means of implementing an Advanced Process Control System (APCS). The functioning of APCS is based on virtual analyzers (VA) of product quality. A virtual analyzer is a mathematical model which is being developed with reference to long-time statistics of lab collected and performance data. Virtual analyzers facilitate assessing the desired, rather than directly measured, product quality factors by product parameters which are under continuous control by means of advanced control systems. The article describes an approach to developing a system of virtual analyzers for target quality factors of alkylphenols based on regression equations that have been formulated by the least-squares method.
Djimasbe R.1, Varfolomeev M.A.1, Al-Muntasser A.A.1, Suweid M.A.1, Osin Yu.N.2, Diop F.S.1, Mustafina A.N.1, Garaeva D.I.1
(1Institute of Geology and Oil and Gas Technology, Federal University of Kazan (Volga region), 2Interdisciplinary Center «Analytical Microscopy», Federal University of Kazan (Volga region), Kazan)
Upgrading of Heavy Oil under the exposition of Supercritical Water at Different Temperatures
Облагораживание тяжелой нефти под воздействием сверхкритической воды при различных температурах
Keywords: heavy oil, supercritical water, viscosity, scanning electron microscopy, gas chromatography, IR-spectroscopy, SARA-analysis.
Abstract. In this work, an experimental study of the upgrading of heavy oil under the influence of supercritical water (SCW) at temperatures of 380 °C, 420 °C and 440 °C was carried out. The analysis of the composition and properties of liquid and solid products was carried out using a set of methods including SARA analysis, gas chromatography (GC), IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The results show that with increase of the SCW temperature, an increase in the amount of gaseous products and coke occurs, while the yield of liquid products, their viscosity and density decrease. Data from SARA analysis and gas chromatography showed that with the increase of temperature to 420 °C, the content of the fraction of resins and asphaltenes decreases and the amount of saturated hydrocarbons increases to a maximum value. Similarly, at 420 °C, the vanadium (V) content decreases by 61.66 % in heavy oil, where it should be noted that the vanadium content is very sensitive to temperature changes. The elemental analysis data confirm that, under the influence of SCW, the sulfur content in oil decreases from 4.21 % to 2.43 %. According to the results obtained, it can be noted that the choice of temperature under the action of SCW significantly affects the upgrading of heavy oil. The most optimal temperature for the investigated heavy oil is 420 °C. The use of SCW is of practical interest for upgrading heavy oil, including reservoir conditions.
Medzhibovskiy A.S.1 Kolokolnikov A.S.2,Zibrova S.N.2
(1Qualitet Group, 2LLC Qualitet, Moscow)
A study of thermal and antiwear properties of the oil compositions involving a condensed alkylphenol detergent additive
Исследование термических и противоизносных свойств масляных композиций с вовлечением детергентной присадки на основе конденсированного алкилфенола
Keywords:oils’ thermal and antiwear properties, phenate additives.
Abstract.The current paper presents further studies of the oils’ operational properties (detergent properties mostly) of those oils which contain a highly alkaline condensed alkylphenol detergent additive. In this text thermal and antiwear properties of oils containing various detergents were discussed.
Thermal properties of different oil compositions were evaluated when heated in a Q-derivatograph (under a dynamic mode). Weight loss of the oil sample due to its evaporation and the temperature of the end of evaporation were estimated. It was revealed that the most stable is sample 3, containing K-38 additive. This sample had the highest evaporation start temperature (275°C compared to 269, 286, 262°C of the samples 4,1,2 respectively) as well as the highest end of evaporation temperature (579°C compared to 558°C (samples 1 and 4) and 555°C of sample 2). The antiwear properties were studied on a friction machine (roller-block type). The test results have shown a high efficiency of the oils containing a new highly alkaline K-38 additive.
Zuber V. I 1, Nigmatullin V. R.2, Nigmatullin R. G.3, Perkhutkin D. A.4
(1JSC «GAZPROMNEFT-MNPZ», Moscow, 2 Ufa State Petroleum Technical University, Ufa, 3 Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa, 4PJSC ANC Bashneft-Ufaneftekhim, Ufa)
Development of technology for producing base oil and environmentally friendly petroleum plasticizer
Разработка технологии получения базового масла и экологически чистого нефтяного пластификатора
Keywords: polyaromatic hydrocarbons, rubber filler, rubber plasticizer, selective cleaning, base oil, dewaxing, raffinate solution, extract solution, selective solvent, oxidation stage.
Abstract. The article relates to the field of chemical technology and can be used in oil refining. The article reveals a method for producing base oils with a low sulfur content, environmentally friendly aromatic fillers and plasticizers of rubber and rubber, including selective purification of oil fractions of oil with a selective solvent, separation of the extract and raffinate solutions of the first stage, while the extract solution of the first stage is cooled, followed by separation in the settling tank of the pseudo-raffinate solution of the first stage, a raffinate solution of the first stage after solvent regeneration is dewaxed and oxidized, followed by extraction of the oxidized dewaxed oil to obtain raffinate and extract solutions of the second stage, from the raffinate solution of the second stage after solvent regeneration and subsequent adsorption or hydrotreatment, a base oil of group II with a low sulfur content is obtained, while the extract solution of the second stage is mixed with a pseudo-paraffinate solution of the first stage to obtain after solvent regeneration, an environmentally friendly aromatic filler and plasticizer of rubber and rubber with a polyaromatic hydrocarbon content of less than 2.9%.
Babayev E.R.,1 Efendiyeva Kh.G.,1 Mammadova P.Sh.,1 Poletayeva O.Yu.,2 Mukhametzyanov I.Z.3
(1Academician A.Guliyev Institute of Chemistry of Additives of NAS Azerbaijan, Baku, 2 Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, 3LLC «Gazpromneft STC», Moscow)
E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Synthesis of s-tetramethyl–, ethylammonium-o-butylxantogenates and study of them as antimicrobial additives to lubricant-cooling fluids
Синтез s-тетраметил–этиламмоний-о-бутилксантогенатов и исследование их в качестве антимикробных добавок к смазочно-охлаждающим жидкостям
Keywords: syntezed, butylxantogenate, terametylammoniy, bacteriside, fungiside, bioside.
Abstract. Water and emulsion lubricant-cooling fluid (LCF) are subject to microbiological damage during operation. At this time, the operation, physical-chemical, and sanitary-hygienic indicators of the LCF deteriorate and they become useless. Biocides are used as antimicrobial additives for water or water-emulsion LCFs, which also belong to the class of various organic compounds containing nitrogen and sulfur. In the present paper, a new derivative of butylxanthogenic acid was obtained from the interaction of tetramethyl-, tetraethylammonium iodine with potassium butylksantogenate. The antimicrobial properties of O-Butyl-S-tetramethyl-, tetraethylammonium xantogenate have been studied in lubricating-cooling fluid. It has been established that the O-butyl-S-tetramethyl ammoniumxantogenate has a high bactericidal, fungicidal effect in the range of 0.5-0.25-%.
The structure of the substances was confirmed by IR spectroscopy.
(FAE «The 25th State Research Institute of Himmotology of Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation», Moscow)
Development of technical requirements for the properties of automotive engine oils, taking into account trends in climate protection on the planet
Развитие технических требований к свойствам автомобильных моторных масел с учётом тенденций в защите климата на планете
Keywords: automotive motor oils, performance properties, specification, method of test, engine, fuel economy, exhaust emissions.
Abstract. Decarbonization of the natural environment during the operation of transport is a current trend in the world economy in recent decades. A significant increase in the number of road transport has led to its importance and an increase in its share in the increase in carbon dioxide emissions due to the use of fuels and oils. By the end of the second decade of the 21st century, emissions of carbon dioxide during the operation of transport increased by 83% and thus determined the increase in total CO2 emissions by 25% . The tendency towards decarbonisation is mainly due to a significant limitation of carbon dioxide emissions from exhaust gases in piston engines and, in this regard, the properties of the used automobile engine oils.
Lubricating oils perform additional functions in pure battery-powered vehicles and hybrid vehicles as opposed to vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. The amount of heat generated by electric vehicle batteries creates new demands on performance and thermal management of electric vehicles. At the same time, electric currents generated by an electric vehicle affect the performance properties of lubricants and their performance.
Tyumentsev M. S., Grigoriev A. V.
(SPECTRON NPO Ltd., St-Petersburg)
The Effect of Inorganic Solid Particles and Water on the Results of a Sulfur Content Measurement in Crude Oil with an X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
Влияние механических примесей и воды на результат измерения массовой доли серы в нефти рентгенофлуоресцентным методом
Keywords: crude oil, sulfur fraction, inorganic solid particles and water in crude oil, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.
Abstract. The petroleum refining industry requires an accurate sulfur content determination in crude oil which is often achieved by applying energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). This analytical method provides fast and precise determination of total sulfur content in crude oil and petroleum products. However, the presence of large quantities of inorganic solid particles and/or dispersed water in the crude oil samples to be analyzed may lower the results of sulfur content measurements.
It was established that a decrease of the results of sulfur content measurements in crude oil depends on the quantities of water and inorganic solid particles in the samples to be analyzed, and, to a large extent, on the position of a sample in the analyzer. The effects of these factors on the results of sulfur content measurements in the crude were assessed quantitatively. It was demonstrated that the sample-surface-side geometry of the analyzer is more efficient than the sample-surface-down geometry since it drastically reduces the adverse effects of water and inorganic solid particles on the results of sulfur content measurements in crude oil.
Kalyanova O.A., Peskovets A.V., Tatur I.R., Bagdasarov L.N.
(Russian state University of oil and gas (National research University) named after I.M. Gubkin, Moscow)
Features of production and application of sulfonate greases
Особенности производства и применения сульфонатных смазок
Keywords: grease, thickener, lithium soap, sulfonate lubricants, calcium sulfonate, calcium carbonate, calcite, tribological characteristics, protective properties, water resistance, production technology, reactor equipment.
Abstract. The main trends in the use of modern greases are analyzed and the most promising ones are identified. The properties and structure of sulfonate greases with different alkalinity and their application areas are considered. The technologies and equipment used for the production of sulfonate greases with thickeners obtained by various methods are presented. Sulfonate greases can become «universal», due to their operational and physico-chemical characteristics. It is noted that a large number of studies of sulfonate greases have been conducted, but they are mainly related to the study of their structure and water absorption capacity. In this regard, additional studies of the protective and low-temperature properties of sulfonate greases based on various dispersed media, as well as the study of their tribological parameters at high temperatures, are needed.