Shakun A. N., Fedorova M. L., Karpenko T. V., Demidova E.V. (SIE Neftehim, LLC, Krasnodar)
Isomalk-3 and Isomalk-3R Technologies for Production of Individual Light Paraffins as the Feed for Petrochemical Facilities
Технологии Изомалк-3 и Изомалк-3R для получения индивидуальных лёгких парафиновых углеводородов как сырья нефтехимических производств
Keywords: Isomerization, paraffins (paraffin hydrocarbons), aromatics (aromatic hydrocarbons), sulphated (sulfated) catalysts, chlorinated catalysts, petrochemical synthesis, n-butane, isobutane, normalization, reverse isomerization, ethylene, environment.
The article discusses the new environmentally friendly catalytic technologies for processing butane cut, developed by SIE Neftehim LLC, giving wide opportunities for involving LPG in production of commercial value-added products.
Development of petrochemical industry has created a demand for technologies and catalysts that enhance the economic efficiency of petrochemical products’ manufacturing and expand the feed base of petrochemical facilities without involving primary processing feeds. As the environmentally safe and economically effective solution, SIE Neftehim, LLC offers Isomalk-3 technology to produce maximum amount of isobutane, and Isomalk-3R technology to produce maximum amount of n-butane from isobutane cut.
Application of Isomalk-3R technology expands the feed base for ethylene production due to isomerization of isobutane by-product to n-butane. N-butane is a valuable feed for pyrolysis units, providing high yields of ethylene, propylene, and n-butene used for polymer production.
In turn, obtaining additional amounts of isobutane is possible due to application of n-butane to isobutane catalytic isomerization technology Isomalk-3. Isobutane cut produced in Isomalk-3 technology is notable for its high purity: the isobutane content may exceed 99 wt.%, it has no sulfur, nitrogen, chlorine, and oxygen impurities. Isobutane is in demand as the feed for production of alkylate, butyl rubber, oxygenates (MTBE and ETBE), isooctane.
Isomalk-3 and Isomalk-3R processes do not require injection of chlorinating reagents, and the highly active catalytic system is resistant to poisons and impurities. Isomalk-3 and Isomalk-3R process designs are very similar, which allows integrating two units into one for alternate production of n-butane and isobutane.
УДК621.892, 099,6; 621.892; 665.1
Abdullayeva Yu.A., Alekperova N.H., Logmanova S.B., Kafarova N.F., Hasanova R.Z. (The Institute of Petrochemical Processes named after academician Y.H.Mamedaliyev, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baky)
Investigation of the qualities of some promising oils of the Absheron oil and gas region
Исследование свойств некоторых перспективных нефтей Апшеронского нефтегазоносного района для получения качественных нефтепродуктов
Keywords: Absheron oil and gas region, Azeri, Chirag, Guneshli, marketing oils, light fractions, oil fractions.
Abstract. The article presents the characteristics of characteristic oils of the Apsheron oil and gas region, as well as the hydrocarbon composition of light and oil fractions.
Oils of the Apsheron oil and gas region in terms of light fractions, sulfur content, and density are comparable to marketing grades of oils. The standards for prices are: graded crude oil WTI, Light Sweet, Brent, and Russian oils Sokol, Urals, Siberian Light are approaching them.
We have studied in detail the yields and hydrocarbon composition of light and oil fractions of oils from the Apsheron oil and gas region.
To obtain oils with a high viscosity index, studies were carried out to change the structure of oil fractions using hydrogen using the example of oil fractions of Azeri oil.
Due to the significant content of aromatic hydrocarbons, schemes for the processing of oil fractions have been developed, including selective purification of distillates, dewaxing (except for Guneshli oil), as well as hydrocatalytic treatment in a severe mode in the presence of industrial Russian catalysts.
As a result, it was possible to obtain API group I oils, according to the viscosity classification corresponding to SAE 20 and SAE 30. Thus, a study of the qualities and hydrocarbon composition of oils from the Absheron oil and gas region showed that these oils are characterized by a high content of light fractions, low density, and low sulfur content. According to these indicators, these oils correspond to the marker oils.
In order to obtain base oils with a viscosity index of ≥90 and an aromatic hydrocarbon content of ≥10, a traditional refining method was used: selective refining, dewaxing, and severe hydrotreating.
Mukhtarova G.S., Abdullayeva Yu.A., Hasanova R.Z., Logmanova S.B., Kafarova N.F. (Institute of Petrochemical Processes named after Academician Y. G. Mamedaliyev of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Baky) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The study of the qualities of light and oil fractions of Azeri oil
Исследование качеств светлых и масляных фракций нефти Азери
Keywords: Azeri Light oil, light fractions, oil fractions, marketing oils, sulfur content, density.
Abstract. The article provides research on the qualities of Azeri oil and its light and oil fractions. A characteristic feature of Azeri oil is its high content of light fractions. This oil is light, low-sulfur, and paraffinic. Azeri oil in terms of density, sulfur content, content of light (light) fractions corresponds to marketing grades of oils and is called Azeri Light. Along with light fractions, Azeri Light oil contains up to 30-32% of oil fractions boiling above 350°C. Studies of 50°C oil fractions 350-500°C showed that the viscosity of the fractions at 100°C is in the range of 2.5-10.2 mm2/s, the viscosity index is 72-79.3, and the pour point is 12-36°С, potential content of base oils — 25.73%, their hydrocarbon composition, %: n-paraffinic oils — 50.7; isoparaffinic + naphthenic — 10.67; aromatic — 8.94%. Using traditional methods of purification using a selective solvent, followed by dewaxing and hydrotreating, from 50°C oil fractions of Azeri oil, base oils with a viscosity of 4.2-9.0 mm2/s at 100°C and a viscosity index of 91.0 can be obtained — 95.8, pour point minus 15°С / minus 20°С. By cleaning a wide oil fraction of 350-500°C, it is possible to obtain a base oil with a viscosity at 100 C of 6.5 mm2/s (SAE 20), a viscosity index of 95, a pour point of minus 15°C, an oil yield (350-500°C) is 20.3% for distillate (12.4% for oil). In terms of saturated hydrocarbons content (≥90%, sulfur content less than 0.03%), viscosity index > 90, the oil has good antioxidant properties and can be assigned to API group II.
Medzhibovskiy A.S., Kolokolnikov A.S., Savchenko A.O., Poldushova G.A. (Qualitet Group, LLC Qualitet, Moscow)
Influence of the synthesis method of tert-butylated triphenyl phosphates on the operational properties of fire-resistant fluids
Влияние метода синтеза трет-бутилированных трифенилфосфатов на эксплуатационные свойства огнестойких жидкостей
Keywords: Fire-resistant fluids, phosphate esters.
Abstract. Three substituted aryl esters of orthophosphoric acid are the base component of fire-resistant fluids used in the lubricating and electro-hydraulic control system at steam and gas turbines of power plants. In this paper, we studied the possibility of improving the physicochemical and performance properties of phosphates, which are made of the raw materials available in the Russian Federation: phenol and 4-tert-butylphenol by reducing the content of an undesirable component — unsubstituted triphenyl phosphate, which is particularly vulnerable towards water. According to the results of the work, the conclusions were made:
— a decrease in the content of triphenyl phosphate to a level of 1% and below leads to some improvement (reduction) of the air release time and an increase in the hydrolytic stability (represented as reducing the change in acid number after prolonged contact with water) of the fire-resistant fluid based on mixed esters. The degree of change of these properties is quantified.
— it is possible to achieve the minimum content of triphenyl phosphate by changing the phosphorylation technology. By carrying out the process stepwise, the possibility of the interaction of phosphorus oxychloride with unsubstituted phenol is substantially eliminated, that is why there is almost no probability of an undesirable component formation in the resulting mixture of esters.
V.M. Abbasov, M.A. Najafova, Yu.A. Abdullayeva, S.F. Akhmedbekova, S.A. Balakishieva, N.G. Alekperova (Institute of petrochemical processes named. Yu.G. Mamedaliyev of NAN Azerdbajan, Baku)
Spectroscopic studies of oil products west-absheron oil fractions.
Спектроскопические исследования масляных фракций Западно-Абшеронской нефти
Keywords: asphaltene radicals, aromatic hydrocarbon radicals, viscosity index, Lubrizol, engine oil for diesel engines.
Abstract. The composition and paramagnetism of oil fractions (300-350oC), (350-400oC), (400-450oC), and (450-500oC) of West-Absheron oil were studied using IR, ESR spectroscopy and luminescence methods. In all these refineries, asphaltene radicals with a concentration of 1018spin/g are registered, which screen all paramagnetic particles present in the oil system. With the exception of the fraction (300-350oC), in which much lower than in the listed fractions, it was possible to register the spectra of metal oxides (DHwidth=117mtl, g=2.7), the spectra from aromatic hydrocarbon radicals (DНwidth=10mtl, g=2.4), which was also registered in the fr.(140-3200C) of the oil itself. The presence of these petroleum products greatly reduces the oil viscosity index. As a result of the cleaning of the latter with an ionic liquid and an adsorption method in the studied oil fractions were found in trace amounts. The increase in the viscosity index of the oil fr. (350-500oC) was increased only after the addition of a foreign Lubrizol additive concentrate. Thus, the SAE15W40 engine oil with a viscosity index of 101.2 and a low pour point (-30oC) was obtained, which is recommended as a motor oil for diesel engines.
D. V. Boykov1, A. P. Perepelin2, Yu. E. Hryashchev2 (1 PJSC «Avtodizel», (YaMZ), 2Federal state budgetary educational institution of higher education, Yaroslavl state technical University (YSTU))
Differences in the power parameters of diesel engines with a high pressure fuel pump and a battery fuel system for some types of fuel
Различия в изменении мощностных параметров дизелей с топливным насосом высокого давления и аккумуляторной топливной системой на некоторых видах топлив
Keywords: diesel engines, fuel systems, diesel fuel, kerosene, mixtures of diesel fuel with gasoline
Abstract. The article presents calculated and experimental data on changes in the power parameters of diesel engines equipped with a fuel system of various designs, on some types of fuels. Investigated: Euro diesel fuel, TS-1 kerosene, fuel mixtures with gasoline. It is shown that the power parameters of diesel engines with a «Common Rail» type battery fuel system with an electronic control unit change to a lesser extent in comparison with a traditional plunger-type high-pressure fuel pump with a mechanical regulator when switching to a more compressible and lighter fuel. The reasons for these differences in changing engine parameters are considered.
Isaev A.V., Nikitin I.M., Popov V.P., Dunaev S.V., Lesin A.V., Averina N.P. (Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis Topchiev A.V. RAS, Moscow, (TIPS RAS)
Modern evaluation methods thermal oxidative stability of reactive fuels in dynamic conditions and prospects for their development
Современные методы оценки термоокислительной стабильности реактивных топлив в динамических условиях и перспективы их развития
Keywords: jet fuels, thermoconstrictive stability, determination methods, spectroscopic reflectometry, laser ellipsometry.
Abstract. The article discusses methods for assessing the thermal bonding stability (TOC) of jet fuels. The importance of determining this indicator for the design and operation of modern and advanced aircraft was noted. It is indicated that the methods used for assessing TOC are indirect, which limits their accuracy and reliability. The article gives the author’s expert assessment of the correlation of the method indicators with the operational properties of fuels.
Promising areas for the development of methods for measuring the amount of deposits include modern optical research methods: spectroscopic reflectometry, laser ellipsometry, as well as direct measurement of micro-amounts of deposits on control elements.
УДК 621.892.28: [621.452.3+629.735.45]
Yanovskiy L. S., Ezhov V. M., Ilina M. A., Sharanina K. V. (Central Institute of Aviation Motors, Moscow, Russia)
Stady of the thermal-oxidative stability of synthetic oils for aircraft gas turbine engines and helicopter gearboxes
Исследование термоокислительной стабильности синтетических масел для авиационных ГТД и редукторов вертолётов
Keywords: Thermal-oxidative stability, Arrhenius equation, Van’t-Hoff rule, lubricating oils, gas turbine engines.
Abstract. The aim of the research was to develop a method for determining the values of aviation oils during their oxidation based on the theories of chemical kinetics. Studies of the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of aviation lubricating oils based on polyesters for gas turbine engine aircraft were carried out using the method based on GOST 23797-79. The values of the kinematic viscosity at temperatures of
100 °C and minus 40 °C, as well as the acid number of samples of oils LZ-240, ASMO-200M, ASMO-220 and VASMO-225M, oxidized for 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 hours at temperatures of 200, 225 and 240 °C were determined. Based on the results obtained, kinetic graph changes in oil parameters are constructed, the reaction order is determined, and models of changes in oil parameters during oxidation based on the Arrhenius equation and the Van’t-Hoff rule are proposed. The calculation error does not exceed 10%. Dependencies of oxidation temperature and oxidation time are built, where maximum permissible values of oil parameters are achieved. These function allow you to evaluate the operability of oils and the quality margin according to its TOS.